Since the early 2000s Sandia has been addressing the security challenges associated with growing limitations on water availability. Our technical strengths include:

Inland desalination

Produced-water treatment

 Novel water-treatment methods

We have a demonstrated the ability to:

  • Team with federal agencies, industry, academia, and non-profit research organizations.
  • Leading desalination roadmapping and roadmap implementation activities.
  • Conduct fundamental research on water, transport of water, selective contaminant removal and novel water separation materials.
  • Run pilots and demonstration projects for to optimize and evaluate state-of-the-art of technologies.
  • Develop simple, low-cost solutions to complex water challenges.

Our science and engineering capabilities include:

Novel Water-Treatment Membranes

Chemical Water Treatment

Mitigation of Scaling and Fouling

Pilot Testing

View the history of Water Treatment

View History

Sandia has numerous R&D 100 awards, patents, peer-reviewed publications and licensed technologies.

  • 1996 R&D 100 Award: Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M, “Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion exchangers, IONSIV IE-910 and IONSIV IE-911
  • 2011 R&D 100 Award: Sandia National Laboratories and the University of New Mexico, Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification
  • 2012 Federal Lab Consortium for Technology Transfer National Award: Excellence in Tech Transfer: Crystalline Silicotitanates
NOVEL WATER-TREATMENT MEMBRANES

  • Rempe, S., C. J. Brinker, D. M. Rogers, Y.-B. Jiang and S. Yang (2016). Biomimetic membranes and methods for making biomimetic membranes. U. S. Patent Number:  9,486,742 B1.
  • Cornelius, C. J., C. H. Fujimoto and M. A. Hickner (2007). Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers. U.S. Patent Number:  7,301,002 B1.
  • Hibbs, M., C. J. Cornelius and C. H. Fujimoto (2011). Poly(phenylene)-based anion exchange membrane. U.S. Patent Number:  7,888,397 B1.

CHEMICAL WATER TREATMENT

  • Anthony, R. G., R. G. Dosch and C. V. Philip (2000). Method of using novel silicotitanates. U. S. Patent Number:  6,110,378.
  • Anthony, R. G., R. G. Dosch and C. V. Philip (2000). Silico-titanates and their methods of making and using. U.S. Patent Number:  6,479,427.
  • Brady, P. V., N. R. Khandaker, J. L. Krumhansl and D. M. Teter (2004). In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations. U. S. Patent Number:  6,830,695 B1.
  • Brady, P. V., D. M. Teter and J. L. Krumhansl (2006). Inorganic ion sorbents. U.S. Patent Number:  7,122,502 B1.
  • Brady, P. V., B. P. Dwyer, J. L. Krumhansl and J. D. Chwirka (2009). In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system. U. S. Patent Number:  7,514,004 B1.
  • Brady, P. V., D. M. Teter and J. L. Krumhansl (2006). Inorganic ion sorbents and methods for using the same. U.S. Patent Number:  7,074,336 B1.
  • Brady, P. V., D. M. Teter and J. L. Krumhansl (2007). Inorganic ion sorbent method. U.S. Patent Number:  7,244,359 B1.
  • Brady, P. V., D. M. Teter, J. L. Krumhansl and N. R. Khandaker (2006). Method of removing arsenic and other anionic contaminants from contaminated water using enhanced coagulation. U.S. Patent Number:  7,138,063 B1.
  • Gao, H., Y. Wang and C. R. Bryan (2007). Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid. U.S. Patent Number:  7,238,288 B1.
  • Krumhansl, J. L. and P. V. Brady (2014). Green methods for in situ extraction of uranium. U. S. Patent Number:  8,708,422.
  • Krumhansl, J. L. and M. J. Rigali (2014). Methods of recovering alkali metals. U.S. Patent Number:  8,663,361.
  • Moore, R. C. and D. R. Anderson (2004). System for removal of arsenic from water. U.S. Patent Number:  6,821,434 B1.
  • Moore, R. C. and D. R. Anderson (2007). Arsenic removal from water. U.S. Patent Number:  7,247,242 B1.
  • Moore, R. C., K. C. Holt-Larese and R. Bontchev (2013). Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water. U. S. Patent Number:  8,507,004 B2.
  • Nenoff, T. A. and M. D. Nyman (2002). Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases. U. S. Patent Number:  6,482,380 B1.
  • Nyman, M. D. and T. A. Stewart (2012). Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment. U. S. Patent Number:  8,119,011 B1.
  • Teter, D. M., P. V. Brady and J. L. Krumhansl (2007). Inorganic ion sorbent method U. S. Patent Number:  7,244,359 B1
  • Teter, D. M., P. V. Brady, J. L. Krumhansl and N. R. Khandaker (2006). Method of removing arsenic and other anionic contaminants from contaminated water using enhanced coagulation U. S. Patent Number:  7,138,063 B1.
  • Zhao, H. and R. C. Moore (2004). Zirconium-modified materials for selective adsorption and removal of aqueous arsenic. U.S. Patent Number:  6,824,690 B1.

MITIGATION OF SCALING AND FOULING

  • Brady, P. V. and J. L. Krumhansl (2015). pH adjustment of power plan cooling water with flue gas/fly ash. U. S. Patent Number:  9,140,145 B1.
  • Hibbs, M., S. J. Altman, H. D. T. Jones and P. B. Savage (2013). Biofouling-resistant ceragenin-modified materials and structures for water treatment. U.S. Patent Number:  8,529,681 B1.
  • Hibbs, M., S. J. Altman, H. D. T. Jones and P. B. Savage (2013). Methods for attaching polymerizable ceragenins to water treatment membranes using silane linkages. U.S. Patent Number:  8,530,002 B1.
  • Hibbs, M., S. J. Altman, H. D. T. Jones and P. B. Savage (2013). Methods for attaching polymerizable ceragenins to water treatment membranes using amine and amide links. U.S. Patent Number:  8,557,031 B1.
  • Ho, C. K., S. J. Altman, P. G. Clem, M. Hibbs and P. B. Savage (2012). Airfoil-shaped micro-mixers for reducing fouling on membrane surfaces. U.S. Patent Number:  8,292,492 B2.

GENERAL

  • Brady P. V., R. J. Kottenstette, T. M. Mayer, M. M. Hightower.(2005) in Desalination: A Primer, Inland Desalination: Challenges and Research Needs. J. of Contemporary Water Research & Education. 132, 46-51.
  • Cygan, R. T., T. M. Alam, C. J. Brinker, B. C. Bunker, J. S. Clawson, L. J. Criscenti, P. S. Crozier, D. Farrow, P. J. Feibelman, B. L. Frankamp, G. P. Holland, J. E. Houston, D. L. Huber, Y.-B. Jiang, K. Leung, C. D. Lorenz, T. M. Nenoff, M. D. Nyman, N. W. Ockwig, C. J. Orendorff, J. D. Pless, S. B. Rempe, S. Singh, M. J. Stevens, K. Thuermer, F. B. van Swol, S. Varma, R. C. Major, M. J. McGrath, J. I. Siepmann, X. Zhu, J. L. Cecchi, Z. Chen, D. R. Dunphy, H. Gerung, D. J. Kissel, N. Liu, G. K. Xomeritakis, J. A. Anderson, A. Travesset, L. L. Daemen, M. A. Hartl, and H. Xu (2008), Exploiting Interfacial Water Properties for Desalination and Purification Applications, SAND2008-5729, 268 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Cygan, R. T., and J. A. Greathouse (2005), Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research: Workshop Report, SAND2005-6220, 40 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Mayer, T. M., P. V. Brady, and R. T. Cygan (2011), Nanotechnology Applications to Desalination: A Report for the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, SAND2010-8355, 34 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Morrow, C. W., B. P. Dwyer, S. W. Webb, and S. J. Altman (2011), Water Recovery Using Waste Heat from Coal Fired Power Plants, SAND2011-0258, 82 pp, Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM.

NOVEL WATER-TREATMENT MEMBRANES

  • Cygan, R.T., Brinker, C.J., Nyman, M.D., Leung, K., and Rempe, S.B. (2008) A molecular basis for advanced materials in water treatment. Materials Research Society Bulletin, 33(1), 42-47.
  • Fu, Y; Li, B; Jiang, Y-B; Dunphy, DR; Tsai, A; Tam, S-Y; Li, B; Fan, H; Zhang, H; Rogers, DM; Rempe, SB, Atanassov, P; Cecchi, JL; and CJ Brinker.  2014.  Atomic layer deposition of L-alanine polypeptide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136:15821-24.
  • Jiang, Y.-B., Liu, N., Gerung, H., Cecchi, J.L., and Brinker, C.J. (2006) Nanometer-thick conformal pore sealing of self-assembled mesoporous silica by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition.  Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(34), 11018-11019.
  • Jiang, Y.-B., Xomeritakis, G., Chen, Z., Dunphy, D., Kissel, D.J., Cecchi, J.L., and Brinker, C.J. (2007) Sub-10 nm thick microporous membranes made by plasma-defined atomic layer deposition of a bridged silsesquioxane precursor.  Journal of the American Chemical Society, 129(50), 15446-15447.
  • Leung, K., Rempe, S.B., and Lorenz, C.D. (2006) Salt permeation and exclusion in hydroxylated and functionalized silica pores.  Physical Review Letters, 96(9), 095504.
  • Leung, K.; and SB Rempe. 2009. Ion rejection by nanoporous membranes in pressure-driven molecular dynamics simulations. J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6:1948-1955 (invited)
  • Lorenz, C.D., Crozier, P.S., Anderson, J.A., and Travesset, A. (2008) Molecular dynamics of ionic transport and electrokinetic effects in realistic silica channels.  Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(27), 10222-10232.
  • Orendorff, C.J., Alam, T.M., Frankamp, B.L., Clawson, J.S., Holland, G.P., Huber, D.L., and Bunker, B.C. (2008) Model Nylon 6,6 thin films:  Synthesis and characterization.  Langmuir, submitted.
  • Orendorff, C.J., Huber, D.L., and Bunker, B.C. (2008) Effects of water and temperature on conformational order in model Nylon thin films.  Journal of Physical Chemistry B, submitted.
  • Li, L., Dong, J., Nenoff, T. M., & Lee, R. (2004). Reverse osmosis of ionic aqueous solutions on a MFI zeolite membrane. Desalination, 170(3), 309-316.
  • Li, L., Dong, J., Nenoff, T. M., & Lee, R. (2004). Desalination by reverse osmosis using MFI zeolite membranes. Journal of membrane science,243(1), 401-404.
  • Li, L., Dong, J., & Nenoff, T. M. (2007). Transport of water and alkali metal ions through MFI zeolite membranes during reverse osmosis. Separation and Purification Technology, 53(1), 42-48.

CHEMICAL WATER TREATMENT

  • Alam, TM; Hart, D; and SLB Rempe. 2011. Computing the 7Li NMR chemical shielding of hydrated Li+ using cluster calculations and time-averaged configurations from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13:13629 (back cover).
  • Asthagiri, D; Pratt, LR; Paulaitis, ME; and SB Rempe. 2004. Hydration structure and free energy of biomolecularly specific aqueous dications, including Zn2+ and first transition row metals. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126:344-351.
  • Asthagiri, D; Dixit, PD; Merchant, S; Paulaitis, M; Pratt, LR; Rempe, SB; and S Varma. 2010.  Ion selectivity from local configurations of ligands in solutions and ion channels. Chem. Phys. Lett. (Frontiers Article) 485:1-7 (invited, cover).
  • Chaudhari, MI; Soniat, M; and SB Rempe. 2015.  Octa-coordination and the aqueous Ba2+ ion.  J. Phys. Chem. B 119:8746-53.
  • Feibelman, P.J. (2007) Substitutional NaCl hydration in ice.  Physical Review B, 75(21), 214113.
  • Feibelman, P.J. (2007) Comment on “Free energy of solvation of simple ions:  Molecular dynamics study of solvation of Cl- and Na+ in the ice/water interface”.  Journal of Chemical Physics, 126, 237101.
  • Gu, D. G., L. Nguyen, C.V. Philip, M.E. Huckman, R.G. Anthony, J.E. Miller, D.E. Trudell (1997) Cs Ion Exchange Kinetics in Complex Electrolyte Solutions Using Hydrous Crystalline Silicotitanates” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 5377.
  • Leung, K.; and S.B. Rempe. 2006. Ab initio rigid water: Effect on water structure, ion hydration, and thermodynamics. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8:2153-2162.
  • Leung, K.; Rempe, SB; and A von Lilienfeld. 2009.  Ab initio molecular dynamics calculation of ion hydration free energies.  J. Chem. Phys. 130 (20):204507-18.
  • Mason, PE; Ansell, S; Neilson, GW; and SB Rempe. 2015. Neutron scattering studies of the hydration structure of Li+(aq). J Phys Chem B 119:2003-9.
  • Nenoff, T.M.; Krumhansl, J.L. “Cs+ Removal from Seawater by Commercially Available Molecular Sieves”, Solvent Extraction & Ion Exchange, 2012, 30, 33-40.
  • Nenoff, T.M.; Ockwig, N.W.; Alam, T.M.; Hartl, M.; Daemen, L.L. “The Role of Water in Zeolite Pores:The Structure/Property Relationship for Ion Exchange”, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catalysis, 2007, 170(1), 790 795.
  • Nenoff, T.M., Ockwig, N.W., Cygan, R.T., Alam, T.M., Leung, K., Pless, J.D., Xu, H., Hartl, M.A., and Daemen, L.L. (2007) Role of water in selectivity of niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves.  Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111(35), 13212-13221.
  • Ockwig, N. W., R. T. Cygan, L. J. Criscenti, and T. M. Nenoff (2008), Molecular dynamics studies of nanoconfined water in clinoptilolite and heulandite zeolites, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10(6), 800-807. doi: 10.1039/b711949f.
  • Ockwig, N. W., R. T. Cygan, M. A. Hartl, L. L. Daemen, and T. M. Nenoff (2008), Incoherent inelastic neutron scattering studies of nanoconfined water in clinoptilolite and heulandite zeolites, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112(35), 13629-13634. doi: 10.1021/jp803770v.
  • Pless, J.D. et al., Desalination of Brackish Waters Using Ion-Exchange Media, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2006, 45 (13), pp 4752–4756.
  • Pless, J.D. et al., 2005, Structure-Property Relationship of Permutite-like Amorphous Silicates, Nax+2yM3+xSi1-xO2+y (M3+=Al, Mn, Fe, Y), for Ion-Exchange Reactions, Chem. Mater. 2005, 17, 5101-5108.
  • Pless, J. D; Krumhansl, J.; Voigt, J.; Moore, D.; Axness, M.; Phillips, M.L.F; Nenoff,T.M.  “Desalinationof Brackish Ground Waters and Produced Waters Using In-situ Ion Exchange”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Research, 2006, 45, 4752-4756.
  • Rempe, SB; Asthagiri, D and LR Pratt. 2004. Inner shell definition and absolute hydration free energy of K+(aq) on the basis of quasi-chemical theory and ab initio molecular dynamics. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6:1966-1969.
  • Rempe, SB; and B Roux. 2006. Editorial for special issue on ions. Biophys. Chemistry 124:169-170.
  • Rempe, SB; and K Leung. 2010. Response to “Comment on ‘Ab initio molecular dynamics calculation of ion hydration free energies’ [JCP 133, 047103 (2010)].” J. Chem. Phys. 133:047104.
  • Rogers, DM; and SB Rempe. 2011.  Probing the thermodynamics of competitive ion binding using minimum energy structures. J. Phys. Chem. B 115:9116–9129.
  • Rogers, DM; Jiao, D; Pratt, LR; and SB Rempe.  2012.  Structural models and molecular thermodynamics of hydration of ions and small molecules, in Ann. Rep. Comp. Chem. Vol. 8 (ed. R. Wheeler, Chapt. 4, p 71- 127, Elsevier, New York) (invited).
  • Rossi, M; Tkatchenko, A; Rempe, SB; and S Varma. 2013.  The role of methyl-induced polarization in ion binding.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:12978-83
  • Sabo, D.; Jiao, D.; Varma, S.; Pratt, LR and SB Rempe. 2013.  Case study of Rb+(aq), quasi-chemical theory of ion hydration, and the no split occupancies rule.  Ann. Rep. Prog. Chem., Sect C: Phys. Chem. 109:266 (commissioned by the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK).
  • Soniat, M; Rogers, DM and SB Rempe.  2015.  Dispersion- and exchange-corrected density functional theory for sodium ion hydration. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11:2958-67.
  • Stewart, T., M. Nyman, and S. J. Altman (2011), Coagulation Chemistries for Silica Removal from Cooling Tower Water. SAND2011-0800, 40 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Stewart, T. et al., 2009 Enhanced Water Purification: A Single Atom Makes a Difference, Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 5416-5422
  • Stewart, T. et al., Delaminated titanate and peroxotitanate photocatalysts, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, doi:10.1016/j.apcatb. 2011.03.036.
  • Varma, S, and Rempe, S.B. (2006) Coordination numbers of alkali metal ions in aqueous solutions.  Biophysical Chemistry, 124(3), 192-199.
  • Varma, S, and Rempe, S.B. (2007) Tuning ion coordination architectures to enable selective partitioning.  Biophysical Journal, 93(4), 1093-1099.
  • Varma, S; and SB Rempe. 2008.  Structural transitions in coordination preferences of ions.  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (56):15405-15419.
  • Varma, S; Sabo, D; and SB Rempe. 2008. K+/Na+ selectivity in K-channels and valinomycin:  Over-coordination versus cavity-size constraints.  J. Molec. Biol. 376:13-22. 
  • Varma, S; Rogers, DM; Pratt, LR; and SB Rempe. 2011. Design principles for K+ selectivity in membrane transport. J. Gen. Physiol. (Perspectives on Ion Selectivity) 137:479-88 (invited).
  • Whitfield, T; Varma, S; Harder, E; Lamoureux, G, Rempe, SB and B Roux. 2007.  Theoretical study of aqueous solvation of K+ comparing ab initio, polarizable, and fixed-charge models.  J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 3(6):2068-2082.
  • Zheng, Z., D. Gu, and R. G. Anthony, (1995) Estimation of Cesium Ion Exchange Distribution Coefficients for Concentrated Electrolytic Solutions When Using Crystalline Silicotitanates. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 34, 2142-47.
  • Zheng, Z., C.V. Philip, R.G. Anthony, J.L. Krumhansl, D.E. Trudell, J.E. Miller (1996) Ion Exchange of Group I Metals by Hydrous Crystalline Silicotitanates. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1996, 35, 4246
  • Zheng, Z., R.G. Anthony, J.E. Miller (1997) Modeling Multicomponent Ion Exchange Equilibrium Utilizing Hydrous Crystalline Silicotitanates by Multiple Interactive Ion Exchange Site Model. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 2427.

MITIGATION OF SCALING AND FOULING

  • Altman, S. J., M. Hibbs, P. B. Savage, H. D. T. Jones, S. Branda, L. K. McGrath, Y. Feng, M. F. Kirk, J. Pollard, A. Lichtenberger, C. Marry, S. Stafslien, D. Goeres, and K. Buckingham-Meyer (2012), Linking Ceragenins to Water-Treatment Membranes to Minimize Biofouling., SAND2012-0181, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Altman, S. J.; L. K. McGrath, H. D. T. Jones, A. L Sanchez, R. Noek, P. Clem, A. Cook, C. K. Ho, Systematic analysis of micromixers to minimize biofouling on reverse osmosis membranes, Water Research, 44(12), 3545- 3554, 2010.
  • Brady, P. V., S. J. Altman, L. K. McGrath, J. K. Krumhansl, and H. L. Anderson (2013), pH modification for silica control, Desalination and Water Treatment, 51, DOI:10.1080/19443994.2013.76690
  • Hibbs, M. R., L. K. McGrath, S. Kang, A. Adout, S. J. Altman, M. Elimelech, and C. J. Cornelius (2016), Designing a biocidal reverse osmosis membrane coating: Synthesis and biofouling properties, Desalination, 380, 52-59. (DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2015.11.017)
  • Higgin, R., K.J. Howe and T.M. Mayer 2010, Synergistic behavior between silica and alginate: Novel approach for removing silica scale from RO membranes, Desalination 250, 76–81.
  • Ho., C. K. (2009) Evaluation of reflection and refraction in simulations of ultraviolet disinfection using the discrete ordinates radiation model. Water & Science Technology-WST, 59.12.
  • Ho, C. K., S. J. Altman, H. D. T. Jones, S. S. Khalsa, L. K. McGrath, and P. G. Clem, Analysis of micromixers to reduce biofouling on reverse-osmosis membranes, Environmental Progress 27(2), 195-203, 2008.
  • Stewart, T., M. Nyman, and S. J. Altman (2011), Coagulation Chemistries for Silica Removal from Cooling Tower Water, SAND2011-0800, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

PILOT TESTING

  • Altman, S. J., M. Cappelle, A. Sattler, R. Everett, W. Holub, H. Anderson, T. Mayer, and F. McDonald, Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands, SAND2010-3915, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 2010.
  • Altman, S. J., R. P. Jensen, M. A. Cappelle, A. L. Sanchez, R. L. Everett, H. L. Anderson, Jr., and L. K. McGrath, 2012, Membrane Treatment of Side-Stream Cooling Tower Water for Reduction of Water Usage, Desalination, 285, 177-183.
  • Aragon, M., B. Dwyer, R. Everett, W. Holub, R. J. Kottenstette, M. Siegel and J. Wright (2007), Arsenic pilot plant operation and results – Socorro Springs, New Mexico-phase 1, SAND2007-3255, 34 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Aragon, M., R. Kottenstette, B. Dwyer, A. Aragon, R. Everett, W. Holub, M. Siegel and J. Wright (2007), Arsenic pilot plant operation and results- Anthony, New Mexico, SAND2007-6059, 52 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Arora, H., S. Pathan and S. Karori (2007), Arsenic pilot plant operation and results- Weatherford, Oklahoma, SAND2007-2540, 50 pp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

CONCENTRATE MANAGEMENT

  • Gonzalez-Delgado, A., M.K. Shukla, A.L. Ulery, A.S. Bawazir and P.V. Brady, 2011,“Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Self-Sealing Lining Materials for Desalination Evaporation Ponds”, Desalination and Water Treatment, 29, 187-195.

FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF WATER AND TRANSPORT OF WATER

  • Feibelman, P.J. (2006) Lubrication theory of drag on a scanning probe in structured water, near a hydrophilic surface.  Langmuir, 22(5), 2136-2140.
  • Feibelman, P.J. and Houston, J.E. (2006) Does exceptional viscous drag impede flow through a nano-sieve’s pores?  In Proceedings of the Materials Research Society, Volume 930E.
  • Feibelman, P.J. (2005) Stress correction for slab asymmetry in supercell calculations.  Physical Review B, 72(15), 153408.
  • Major, R.C., Houston, J.E., McGrath, M.J., Seipmann, J.I., and Zhu, X.-Y. (2006) Viscous water meniscus under nanoconfinement.  Physical Review Letters, 96(17), 177803.
  • Rempe, SB; Mattsson, TR; Leung, K.  2008.  On ‘the complete basis set limit’ and plane-wave methods in first-principles simulations of water.  Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (Communication) 10:4685-87.
  • Singh, S., Houston, J.E., van Swol, F., and Brinker, C.J. (2006) Drying transition of confined water.  Nature, 442(7102), 526-526.