Renewable Energy and Distributed Systems Integration

Contributing to the Next Generation Grid

What will the future of electricity distribution look like? The rapid development and deployment of renewable and distributed energy resources requires energy providers to have state-of-the-art infrastructure in place to ensure more reliable, resilient, flexible, efficient and secure power distribution and transmission. Sandia’s Renewable Energy and Distributed Systems Integration (RDSI) program works to develop and validate solutions to the challenges facing the nation’s energy providers, in the context of maintaining current infrastructure and building the next generation of interconnected systems and microgrids.

Research Areas

Testing platforms in the Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory (DETL) evaluate security, interoperability, grid support functionality, and reliability of renewable and distributed energy resources (DER) components.

Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory

RDSI researchers at Sandia develop and evaluate new power electronics architectures and controls for the next-generation of inverters and converters in order to improve the performance and reliability of power conversion for DER aggregations.

With increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road, RDSI researchers are developing cybersecurity threat and grid integration models to accelerate the safe and secure deployment of smart EV charging infrastructure on the nation’s power system.

Renewable and distributed energy resources’ capabilities, performance, safety, interoperability, cybersecurity and grid support functionality are regulated by standards that RDSI contributes to.

Physical and cybersecurity technologies applied to power systems developed, evaluated and deployed by RDSI researchers, harden the power system against the threat of attacks.

RDSI researchers analyze the impact of large-scale deployment of distributed and renewable energy on the grid and help industry incorporate these advances into next-generation operations and software.

Featured Projects

Solar Forecasting Sandia has partnered with the University of Arizona to develop, demonstrate, test and deploy an accessible, extensible, open-source framework that enables evaluations of irradiance, solar power, and net-load forecasts that are impartial, repeatable and auditable. This framework will provide reference data and benchmark forecasts against which forecast skill can be measured over time. The goal is create a user-friendly framework for forecast providers, utilities, balancing authorities or fleet generation operators. Learn more (solar forecasting dashboard – alpha version) Energy Storage Sizing for Puerto Rico Sandia, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is conducting a system-wide study of Puerto Rico’s electric transmission and distribution system to determine optimal size and location for battery storage systems. The purpose of the project is to significantly improve Puerto Rico’s grid resilience and performance during calm weather conditions, expand the system’s capacity fo renewable energy deployment and to also significantly improve grid conditions in the face of other large-scale threats such as cyber-attack and man-made or natural disasters. Researchers will also study the island’s ability to operate as a self-sufficient microgrid with enhanced integration of renewable energy technologies. Learn more (pdf). Advanced Sensors – MagSense As advancements are made in grid technology, new, innovative ways to detect abnormalities in electrical components and ways to protect the grid from catastrophic failure must be researched. Researchers at Sandia’s Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory (DETL) are developing and testing a new sensor that will monitor the health of grid components and detect abnormalities and failures. Learn More (pdf).

Threat Model of Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Every day, more electric vehicles are traveling on our roads and through our communities. Because of this growth, the need for increased availability of charging stations is growing as well. Also on the rise is the risk for cyber-attacks through the smart technology-driven components. These potential attacks threaten not only the electric grid, but personal privacy as well. Researchers at Sandia and other national laboratories, along with industry representatives have developed a new threat model that will be used to demonstrate the risk, assess existing charging infrastructure and provide stakeholders with the education they need to help them understand their role in providing grid security and resilience.

Threat Model of Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Fact Sheet
SECURING INVERTER COMMUNICATIONS – Tap, Analyze and Act As more distributed energy resources (DERs) such as solar photovoltaics (PV) are introduced to the electric grid, securing smart inverters at these sites from cyber-attack has becom ecritical for grid protection and resiliency. Researchers at Sandia are developing new Proactive Intrusion Detection and Mitigation System (PIDMS) sensor technology that can sense when inverters are being attacked and also deploy corrective actions to prevent and lessen attacks’ impact. ENERGISE – Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid Integration of Solar Energy Funded by the DOE Sunshot program, this project will help utility companies better visualize, manage, and protect power systems as they include increasing numbers of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar by creating open-source advanced distribution management system (ADMS) algorithms. Secure, Scalable Control & Communications This project analyzes expected availability and response time metrics for distributed solar, develops cyber security architectures, and evaluates promising approaches with hardware in-the-loop experiments. Learn More (pdf) Rapid Quasi-Static Time Series (QSTS) Simulations Quasi-static time series (QSTS) is needed to simulate and understand interactions of PV variability and the benefits of smart grid controls. This project will accelerate QSTS simulation capabilities through new and innovative methods for advanced time-series analysis. Sandia has pioneered computationally efficient and scalable QSTS power flow and stochastic analysis techniques to analyze high-penetration of distributed energy resources in distribution feeders. Inverter Standards With national and international partners, Sandia leads working groups for multiple collaborations, including the Smart Grid International Research Facility Network (SIRFN) within the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN); IEEE 1547; UL 1741; and Smart Grid Interoperable Panel (SGIP).

A microgrid is a small-scale version of an interconnected electric grid. Microgrids can locally mange the operation of distributed energy resources, such a photovoltaics (PV), wind, electric vehicles, energy-storage, demand response, and thermal energy systems while connected to larger host grid or as an independent power system. Sandia’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration, Energy Storage, and Defense Energy programs are developing technologies and applying microgrid solutions nationwide to supply communities with more resilient power. Learn more about Sandia’s work on advanced microgrids. Learn more by visiting our microgrid information page.

Sandia’s Microgrid Design Tool Kit Download DC Microgrid Project with Emera Energy Sandia has partnered with Emera Energy (owner of numerous utility companies in North American including the New Mexico Gas Company) to develop and validate technologies that enable the creation of scalable, low-cost, resilient, high-renewable content direct current (DC) microgrids. This allows DC microgrids to become a viable alternative to traditional alternating current (AC) systems to enhance the safety, efficiency and resilience of distributed energy systems. The collaboration features the creation of a self-sustaining microgrid that includes a community center and several KAFB housing units located near the Distributed Energy Technology Lab (DETL). The DC microgrid design consists of a network of DC nodes, co-located with distributed energy resources and energy storage, interconnected through a DC link ring with power flow controlled by converters at each node. While the microgrid can still be connected to the energy grid serving the Albuquerque area to ensure continuous power, it will be tested as a self-sustaining system, utilizing solar photovoltaics and energy storage. This demonstration will be used to validate design and control strategies evaluated in simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) methods and to explore cost performance tradeoffs that affect the relative sizing of the storage, converters and other network elements. Learn more (pdf). St. Mary’s Village/Mountain Village Microgrid Projects Sandia researchers, partnering with Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the Alaska Center for Energy and Power and microgrid developer denamics GmbH have collaborated with two remote villages in Alaska to demonstrate the viability of advanced microgrids utilizing renewable wind energy as a power source. The villages currently use microgrids powered by cost prohibitive diesel generators. The project includes the development of open source models for renewable energy-based microgrids and grid bridge systems, which would enable similar systems to be put in place for other rural or islanded communities across the United States.

Summer Ferreira – Manager, RDSI

505-844-4864

sferre@sandia.gov

    GridPV Toolkit

    A fully-documented set of Matlab functions that can be sued to build distribution grid performance models using the open source distribution modeling tool OpenDSS.

    System Validation Platform (SVP)

    The automated system validation platform (SVP) quickly determines the performance of distributed energy resources equipment for a range of interoperable and interconnection functions. This technology has been developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the SunSpec Alliance and is used by labs across the globe in the Smart Grid International Research Facility Network (SIRFN) project.

    Sandia Virtual Power Plant (VPP) Platform

    This project provides utilities, grid operators, and distributed energy resource aggregators with a greater capacity to provide voltage and frequency regulation and other grid support functions by aggregating distributed energy resources into secure, reliable virtual power plants (VPP). The VPP optimizes distributed energy resource dispatch and real-time control under high uncertainty.