Distributed Energy Resource Technology
Testing platforms in the Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory (DETL) evaluate security, interoperability, grid support functionality, and reliability of renewable and distributed energy resources (DER) components.
Renewable and distributed energy resources’ capabilities, performance, safety, interoperability, cybersecurity and grid support functionality are regulated by standards that RDSI contributes to.
Power Electronics and Controls
RDSI researchers at Sandia develop and evaluate new power electronics architectures and controls for the next-generation of inverters and converters in order to improve the performance and reliability of power conversion for DER aggregations.
Physical and cybersecurity technologies applied to power systems developed, evaluated and deployed by RDSI researchers, harden the power system against the threat of attacks.
Electric Vehicle Charging
With increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road, RDSI researchers are developing cybersecurity threat and grid integration models to accelerate the safe and secure deployment of smart EV charging infrastructure on the nation’s power system.
Advanced Modeling and Simulation
RDSI researchers analyze the impact of large-scale deployment of distributed and renewable energy on the grid and help industry incorporate these advances into next-generation operations and software
Featured Projects Portfolio
Sandia has partnered with the University of Arizona to develop, demonstrate, test and deploy an accessible, extensible, open-source framework that enables evaluations of irradiance, solar power, and net-load forecasts that are impartial, repeatable and auditable. This framework will provide reference data and benchmark forecasts against which forecast skill can be measured over time. The goal is create a user-friendly framework for forecast providers, utilities, balancing authorities or fleet generation operators. Learn more (solar forecasting dashboard – alpha version)
Energy Storage Sizing for Puerto Rico
Sandia, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is conducting a system-wide study of Puerto Rico’s electric transmission and distribution system to determine optimal size and location for battery storage systems. The purpose of the project is to significantly improve Puerto Rico’s grid resilience and performance during calm weather conditions, expand the system’s capacity fo renewable energy deployment and to also significantly improve grid conditions in the face of other large-scale threats such as cyber-attack and man-made or natural disasters. Researchers will also study the island’s ability to operate as a self-sufficient microgrid with enhanced integration of renewable energy technologies. Learn more (pdf).
Advanced Sensors – MagSense
As advancements are made in grid technology, new, innovative ways to detect abnormalities in electrical components and ways to protect the grid from catastrophic failure must be researched. Researchers at Sandia’s Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory (DETL) are developing and testing a new sensor that will monitor the health of grid components and detect abnormalities and failures. Learn More (pdf).
Threat Model of Vehicle Charging Infrastructure
Every day, more electric vehicles are traveling on our roads and through our communities. Because of this growth, the need for increased availability of charging stations is growing as well. Also on the rise is the risk for cyber-attacks through the smart technology-driven components. These potential attacks threaten not only the electric grid, but personal privacy as well. Researchers at Sandia and other national laboratories, along with industry representatives have developed a new threat model that will be used to demonstrate the risk, assess existing charging infrastructure and provide stakeholders with the education they need to help them understand their role in providing grid security and resilience. Learn more (pdf).
SECURING INVERTER COMMUNICATIONS – Tap, Analyze and Act
As more distributed energy resources (DERs) such as solar photovoltaics (PV) are introduced to the electric grid, securing smart inverters at these sites from cyber-attack has becom ecritical for grid protection and resiliency. Researchers at Sandia are developing new Proactive Intrusion Detection and Mitigation System (PIDMS) sensor technology that can sense when inverters are being attacked and also deploy corrective actions to prevent and lessen attacks’ impact. Learn more (pdf).
ENERGISE – Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid Integration of Solar Energy
Funded by the DOE Sunshot program, this project will help utility companies better visualize, manage, and protect power systems as they include increasing numbers of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar by creating open-source advanced distribution management system (ADMS) algorithms. Learn more (pdf)
Secure, Scalable Control & Communications
This project analyzes expected availability and response time metrics for distributed solar, develops cyber security architectures, and evaluates promising approaches with hardware in-the-loop experiments. Learn More (pdf)
Rapid Quasi-Static Time Series (QSTS) Simulations
Quasi-static time series (QSTS) is needed to simulate and understand interactions of PV variability and the benefits of smart grid controls. This project will accelerate QSTS simulation capabilities through new and innovative methods for advanced time-series analysis. Sandia has pioneered computationally efficient and scalable QSTS power flow and stochastic analysis techniques to analyze high-penetration of distributed energy resources in distribution feeders. Learn More (pdf)
With national and international partners, Sandia leads working groups for multiple collaborations, including the Smart Grid International Research Facility Network (SIRFN) within the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN); IEEE 1547; UL 1741; and Smart Grid Interoperable Panel (SGIP).
A microgrid is a small-scale version of an interconnected electric grid. Microgrids can locally mange the operation of distributed energy resources, such a photovoltaics (PV), wind, electric vehicles, energy-storage, demand response, and thermal energy systems while connected to larger host grid or as an independent power system. Sandia’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration, Energy Storage, and Defense Energy programs are developing technologies and applying microgrid solutions nationwide to supply communities with more resilient power. Learn more about Sandia’s work on advanced microgrids. Learn more by visiting our microgrid information page.
Sandia’s Microgrid Design Tool Kit (Download here)
DC Microgrid Project with Emera Energy
Sandia has partnered with Emera Energy (owner of numerous utility companies in North American including the New Mexico Gas Company) to develop and validate technologies that enable the creation of scalable, low-cost, resilient, high-renewable content direct current (DC) microgrids. This allows DC microgrids to become a viable alternative to traditional alternating current (AC) systems to enhance the safety, efficiency and resilience of distributed energy systems. The collaboration features the creation of a self-sustaining microgrid that includes a community center and several KAFB housing units located near the Distributed Energy Technology Lab (DETL). The DC microgrid design consists of a network of DC nodes, co-located with distributed energy resources and energy storage, interconnected through a DC link ring with power flow controlled by converters at each node. While the microgrid can still be connected to the energy grid serving the Albuquerque area to ensure continuous power, it will be tested as a self-sustaining system, utilizing solar photovoltaics and energy storage. This demonstration will be used to validate design and control strategies evaluated in simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) methods and to explore cost performance tradeoffs that affect the relative sizing of the storage, converters and other network elements. Learn more (pdf).
St. Mary’s Village/Mountain Village Microgrid Projects
Sandia researchers, partnering with Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the Alaska Center for Energy and Power and microgrid developer denamics GmbH have collaborated with two remote villages in Alaska to demonstrate the viability of advanced microgrids utilizing renewable wind energy as a power source. The villages currently use microgrids powered by cost prohibitive diesel generators. The project includes the development of open source models for renewable energy-based microgrids and grid bridge systems, which would enable similar systems to be put in place for other rural or islanded communities across the United States. Learn more (pdf).
Sandia, Idaho and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, in partnership with numerous other organizations, are working to deploy advanced technologies and methods to enhance grid resiliency and power distribution in the city of Cordova, AK, to better deal with harsh weather, cyber-threats and other dynamic grid conditions using multiple networked microgrids, energy storage and other technologies such as micro-phasor measurement units (PMUs). To help with field validation and data collection, researchers have introduced the concept of “resilience-by-design,” which will incorporate a cyber-secure resilience framework with real-time sensing and controls at the design stage itself. Learn more (pdf).
Physics-Based Data-Driven Grid Modeling
Researchers at Sandia are looking at ways to create more accurate distribution grid modeling as the use of solar photovoltaics (PV) becomes more prevalent. The issue of inaccurate grid modeling hampers the effectiveness of simulation tools, which can lead to overly conservative or inaccurate decisions regarding PV integration and the ability to increase levels of PV on the grid. The goal of this project is to develop novel physics-based data-driven methods to improve key modeling errors, and to solve grid integration challenges resulting from inaccurate modeling. Learn more (pdf).
Designing Resilient Communities
Emerging technology and capabilities regarding grid modernization, combined with increased use of distributed energy resources (DER) such as solar PV, energy storage, electric vehicles and home and business energy management can enhance grid resilience. To achieve this enhancement, the gap between community and utility resilience planning must be bridged. Researchers at Sandia are collaborating with numerous city and utility pairs, universities and organizations to achieve this goal. Learn more (pdf).
Vermont Regional Partnership to Enable DER
Seeking to obtain 90% of the state’s energy from renewable sources by 2050, the State of Vermont and its electric utilities turned to Sandia for technical support and analysis to improve load forecasting and model and optimize the integration of distributed energy resources and energy storage. This project used an integrated approach to enable the high penetration of renewables at the distribution level and will serve as a template for other utilities across the United States.
Edgardo Desarden Carrero, right, talks with Melvin Lugo Alvarez, both summer interns from the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, studying resilient energy systems at Sandia National Laboratories. (Photo courtesy of Edgardo Desarden Carrero.) [...]
S.S. (Mani) Venkata, Matthew J. Reno, Ward Bower, Scott Manson, James Reilly and George W. Sey Jr; “Microgrid Protection: Advancing the State of the Art,” 2019, Report for the DOE Office of Electricity. https://energy.sandia.gov/download/44357/
G. C. Guerrero-Cabarcas, R. Darbeli-Zamora, E. I. Ortiz-Rivera and J. C. Neely; “The Integral Mean Value Method Approach to Obtaining the Optimal Operating Conditions of a Photovoltaic System,” 2019 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI), Illinois, Champaign, Feb. 28-Mar. 2, 2019 (In Press)
B. Johnson, L. Chang, K. Afridi, M. H. Ali, J. von Appen, Y.-M. Chen, A. Davoudi, S. Dhople, J. H. Enslin, and J. Flicker, “Guest Editorial Joint Special Section on Power Conversion & Control in Photovoltaic Power Plants,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 159-160, 2019.
M. Ropp, S. Perlenfein, D. Schutz, C. Mouw, J. Neely, S. Gonzalez, L. Rashkin, “Evaluation of Multi-Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support and Ride-Through and Investigation of Island Detection Alternatives,” SAND2019-0499.
S. Tatapudi, J. Flicker, D. Srinivasan, J. Upadhyaya, K. Selvarangan, L. Nandakumar, J. Leslie, and G. Tamizhmani, “Design of Experimental Test Setup for Large-scale Reliability Evaluation of Module Level Power Electronics (MLPE),” in 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC)(A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), 2018, pp. 1347-1351: IEEE.
J. Stewart, J. Richards, J. Delhotal, J. Neely, J. Flicker, R. Brocato, and L. Rashkin, “Design and evaluation of hybrid switched capacitor converters for high voltage, high power density applications,” in 2018 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2018, pp. 105-112: IEEE. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1497233
O. Slobodyan, T. Smith, J. Flicker, S. Sandoval, C. Matthews, M. van Heukelom, R. Kaplar, and S. Atcitty, “Hard-switching reliability studies of 1200 V vertical GaN PiN diodes,” MRS Communications, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1413-1417, 2018. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/mrs-communications/article/hardswitching-reliability-studies-of-1200-v-vertical-gan-pin-diodes/38BC66268FC23DCF9FAF9E7E3B5FA277
S. Roy, M. K. Alam, F. Khan, J. Johnson, and J. Flicker, “An irradiance-independent, robust ground-fault detection scheme for PV arrays based on spread spectrum time-domain reflectometry (SSTDR),” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 7046-7057, 2018.
J. C. Neely, J. Stewart, J. J. Delhotal, J. D. Flicker, and G. L. Brennecka, “Low-inductance direct current power bus,” ed: US Patent App. 10/084,310, 2018. http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=10084310.PN.&OS=PN/10084310&RS=PN/10084310
J. Johnson, R. Ablinger, R. Bruendlinger, B. Fox, and J. Flicker, “Interconnection Standard Grid-Support Function Evaluations using an Automated Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 565-571, 2018. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8286871
V. Gevorgian, A. Monti, M. Stevic, S. Vogel, R. W. De Doncker, E. Bompard, A. Estebsari, F. Profumo, R. Hovsapian, and M. Mohanpurkar, “A Global Real-Time Superlab: Enabling High Penetration of Power Electronics in the Electric Grid,” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine, no. 5.3, pp. 35-44, 2018. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8458285
J. Flicker, O. Lavrova, and G. Tamizhmani, “Co-located Accelerated Testing of Module Level Power Electronics and Associated PV Panels,” in 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC)(A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), 2018, pp. 1273-1277: IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8547961
J. Flicker, O. Lavrova, J. Quiroz, T. Zgonena, H. Jiang, K. Whitfield, K. Boyce, P. Courtney, J. Carr, and P. Brazis, “Hazard Analysis of Firefighter Interactions with Photovoltaic Arrays,” in 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC)(A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), 2018, pp. 1754-1759: IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8547387
A. Castillo, J. Flicker, C. W. Hansen, J.-P. Watson, and J. Johnson, “Stochastic Optimization with Risk Aversion for Virtual Power Plant Operations: A Rolling Horizon Control,” Sandia National Lab.(SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia …1751-8687, 2018. Link to publication
A. Monti, M. Stevic, S. Vogel, R. W. De Doncker, E. Bompard, A. Estebsari, F. Profumo, R. Hovsapian, M. Mohanpurkar, and J. D. Flicker, “A Global Real-Time Superlab: Enabling High Penetration of Power Electronics in the Electric Grid,” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 35-44, 2018.
Blakely, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick (2018), Decision Tree Ensemble Machine Learning for Rapid QSTS Simulations.
C. Birk Jones, Cedric Carter, Zachary Thomas, “Intrusion Detection & Response using an Unsupervised Artificial Neural Network on a Single Board Computer for Building Control Resilience“, Resilience Week (RWS) 2018, pp. 31-37, 2018.
Deboever, S. Grijalva, M. J. Reno, and R. J. Broderick (2018), Algorithms to Effectively Quantize Scenarios for PV Impact Analysis using QSTS Simulation.
F. Wilches-Bernal, R. Concepcion, J. Johnson, R.H. Byrne, “Vulnerability Assessment of Frequency Regulation Control Schemes for Converter-Interfaced Generators,” IEEE PES General Meeting, Chicago, IL, 16-20 July 2018.
Ian Gravagne, Ross Guttromson, Jon Berg, Jonathan White, Felipe Wilches-Bernal, Adam Summers, Dave Schoenwald, Mark Harral (2018). Use and Testing of a Wind Turbine for the Supply of Balancing Reserves and Wide-Area Grid Stability. SAND2018-7178.
J. Hernandez-Alvidrez, A. Summers, N. Pragallapati, M. J. Reno, S. Ranade, J. Johnson, S. Brahma, and J. Quiroz, “PV-Inverter Dynamic Model Validation and Comparison Under Fault Scenarios Using a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed”, IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conference (WCPEC), Waikoloa, Hawaii, June 10-15, 2018.
J. Johnson, et al., “International Development of a Distributed Energy Resource Test Platform for Electrical and Interoperability Certification,” 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), Waikoloa, HI, 10-15 Jun 2018.
J. Johnson, R. Ablinger, R. Bruendlinger, B. Fox, and J. Flicker, “Interconnection Standard Grid-Support Function Evaluations using an Automated Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 565-571, 2018.
J. Reno and B. Mather (2018), Variable Time-Step Implementation for Rapid Quasi-Static Time-Series (QSTS) Simulations of Distributed PV.
J. Stewart, J. Richards, J. Delhotal, J. Neely, J. Flicker, R. Brocato, and L. Rashkin, “Design and evaluation of hybrid switched capacitor converters for high voltage, high power density applications,” in 2018 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), San Antonio, TX, pp. 105-112.
J. Stöckl, Z. Miletic, R. Bründlinger, J. Schulz, R. Ablinger, W. Tremmel, J. Johnson, “Pre-evaluation of grid-code compliance for power electronics inverter systems in low-voltage smart grids,” 20th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, Riga, Latvia, 17-21 Sept 2018 (submitted).
M. Lave, M. J. Reno, and R. J. Broderick (2018), Implementation of Synthetic Cloud Fields for PV Modeling in Distribution Grid Simulations.
Li, B. Mather, J. Deboever, M. J. Reno (2018), A Fast Quasi-Static Time Series Simulation Method for PV Smart Inverters with Var Control using Linear Sensitivity Model.
M. Ropp, C. Mouw, D. Schutz, S. Perlenfein, S. Gonzalez, A. Ellis (2018). Unintentional Islanding Detection Performance with Mixed DER Types, SAND2018-8431.
M. U. Qureshi, S. Grijalva, M. J. Reno, J. Deboever, X. Zhang, and R J. Broderick (2018), A Fast Scalable Quasi-Static Time Series Analysis Method for PV Impact Studies using Linear Sensitivity Model.
Matthew Lave, Matthew J. Reno, Robert J. Broderick. Implementation of Synthetic Cloud Fields for PV Modeling in Distribution Grid Simulations in proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 45th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), SAND 2018-6325C.
Matthew Lave. gridPULSE: Public User Library for Systems Evaluation to Accelerate Grid Modernization in proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 45th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), SAND 2018-6192C.
O. Slobodyan, T. Smith, J. Flicker, S. Sandoval, C. Matthews, M. van Heukelom, R. Kaplar, and S. Atcitty, “Hard-switching reliability studies of 1200 V vertical GaN PiN diodes,” MRS Communications, pp. 1-5, 2018.
R. Darbali-Zamora, J. Hernández-Alvidrez, J. E. Quiroz, A. Summers, J. Johnson and E.I. Ortiz-Rivera, “PV Inverter Power Injection Using an Exponential Photovoltaic Model in Combination with a Phase Locked Loop for Real-Time Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications,” ANDESCON, Cali, Columbia, 22-24 Aug 2018.
R. Darbali-Zamora, J.E. Quiroz, J. Hernandez-Alvidrez, J. Johnson, E.I. Ortiz-Rivera, “Validation of a Real-Time Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Distribution Circuit Simulations with Renewable Energy Sources,” 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), Waikoloa, HI, 10-15 Jun 2018.
R. Darbali-Zamora, J.E. Quiroz, J. Hernandez-Alvidrez, J. Johnson, E.I. Ortiz-Rivera, “Implementation of a Dynamic Real Time Grid-Connected DC Microgrid Simulation Model for Power Management in Small Communities,” 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), Waikoloa, HI, 10-15 Jun 2018.
Ross Guttromson, Jonathan White, Jon Berg, Felipe Wilches-Bernal, Cliff Hansen, Josh Paquette, Ian Gravagne (2018). Use of Wind Turbine Kinetic Energy to Supply Transmission Level Services. SAND2018-3200.
S. Gonzalez, N. Gurule, M. J. Reno, J. Johnson, “Fault Current Experimental Results of Photovoltaic Inverters Operating with Grid-Support Functionality,” 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), Waikoloa, HI, 10-15 Jun 2018.
S. Roy, M. K. Alam, F. Khan, J. Johnson, and J. Flicker, “An Irradiance-Independent, Robust Ground-Fault Detection Scheme for PV Arrays Based on Spread Spectrum Time-Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR),” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 7046-7057, 2018.
S. Roy, M.K. Alam, F.H. Khan, J. Johnson, J. Flicker, “An Irradiance Independent, Robust Ground Fault Detection Scheme for PV Arrays Based on Spread Spectrum Time Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR),” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 7046-7057, Aug. 2018. doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2755592
Z. K. Pecenak, V. R. Disfani, M. J. Reno, and J. Kleissl (2018), Comprehensive Reduction of Multiphase Distribution Feeder Models.
B. Zhang, S. Sudhoff, S. Pekarek, R. Swanson, J. Flicker, J. Neely, J. Delhotal, and R. Kaplar, “Prediction of Pareto-optimal performance improvements in a power conversion system using GaN devices,” in 2017 IEEE 5th Workshop on Wide Bandgap Power Devices and Applications (WiPDA), 2017, pp. 80-86: IEEE.
J. Stewart, J. Neely, J. Delhotal, and J. Flicker, “DC link bus design for high frequency, high temperature converters,” in 2017 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2017, pp. 809-815: IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7930789
O. Lavrova, J. E. Quiroz, J. D. Flicker, and R. L. Gooding, “Updated evaluation of shock hazards to firefighters working in proximity of PV systems,” in 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2017, pp. 1280 – 1285. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8366192
J. Johnson, R. Ablinger, R. Bründlinger, B. Fox, and J. Flicker, “Design and evaluation of SunSpec-compliant smart grid controller with an automated hardware-in-the-loop testbed,” Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 16, 2017. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40866-017-0032-7
J. Flicker, G. Tamizhmani, M. K. Moorthy, R. Thiagarajan, and R. Ayyanar, “Accelerated testing of module-level power electronics for long-term reliability,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 259-267, 2017. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7740890
J. Flicker and R. Kaplar, “Design optimization of GaN vertical power diodes and comparison to Si and SiC,” in 2017 IEEE 5th Workshop on Wide Bandgap Power Devices and Applications (WiPDA), 2017, pp. 31-38: IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8170498
J. Delhotal, J. Richards, J. Stewart, J. Neely, J. Flicker, R. Brocato, L. Rashkin, and J. Lehr, “Design and control methodology for improved operation of a HV bipolar hybrid switched capacitor converter,” in 2017 IEEE 5th Workshop on Wide Bandgap Power Devices and Applications (WiPDA), 2017, pp. 60-66: IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8170523
A. Hoke, A. Nelson, J. Tan, V. Gevorgian, C. Antonio, K. Fong, M. Elkhatib, J. Johnson, R. Mahmud, J. Neely, D. Arakawa, The Frequency-Watt Function: Simulation and Testing for the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Technical Report, July 2017.
A.P. Meliopoulos, G. Cokkinides, B. Xie, C. Zhong, J. Johnson, “Full State Feedback Control for Virtual Power Plants,” Sandia Technical Report, SAND2017-10178, September 2017.
C. B. Jones, M. Lave, J. Johnson, R. Broderick, “Demand Response of Electric Hot Water Heaters for Increased Integration of Solar PV,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 Jun 2017.
Birk Jones, C. Carter “Trusted Interconnections Between a Centralized Controller and Commercial Building HVAC Systems for Reliable Demand Response” IEEE Access vol. 5 pp. 11063-11073 2017.
C. Carter, I. Onunkwo, P. Cordeiro, J. Johnson, “Cyber Security Assessments of Distributed Energy Resources,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 Jun 2017.
C. Lai, N. Jacobs, S. Hossain-McKenzie, C. Carter, P. Cordeiro, I. Onunkwo, J. Johnson (2017) Cyber Security Primer for DER Vendors, Aggregators, and Grid Operators, SAND2017-13113.
Dan Selorm Kwami Ameme, and Ross Guttromson (2017). Stochastic Characterization of Communication Network Latency for Wide Area Grid Control Applications. SAND2017-12578.
Deboever, J., Zhang, X., Reno, M.J., Broderick, R.J., Grijalva, S., Therrien, F. (2017). Challenges in reducing the computational time of QSTS simulations for distribution system analysis. Albuquerque, NM, Sandia National Laboratories. SAND2017-5743.
Deboever, S. Grijalva, M. J. Reno, X. Zhang, and R. J. Broderick (2017), Scalability of the Vector Quantization Approach for Fast QSTS Simulation for PV Impact Studies.
J. Deboever, X. Zhang, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick, S. Grijalva, and F. Therrien (2017), Challenges in reducing the computational time of QSTS simulations for distribution system analysis, SAND2017-5743.
J. Hernandez-Alvidrez, J. Johnson, “Parametric PV Grid-Support Function Characterization for Simulation Environments,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 June 2017.
J. Johnson, et al., “Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant,” Sandia Technical Report, SAND2017-10177, September 2017.
J. Johnson, R. Ablinger, R. Bruendlinger, B. Fox, and J. Flicker, “Design and Evaluation of SunSpec-Compliant Smart Grid Controller with an Automated Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed,” India Smart Grid Week, New Delhi, India, 7-11 Mar 2017.
J. Johnson, R. Ablinger, R. Bruendlinger, B. Fox, J. Flicker, “Interconnection Standard Grid-Support Function Evaluations using an Automated Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 Jun 2017.
J. Johnson, S. Gonzalez, and D.B. Arnold, “Experimental Distribution Circuit Voltage Regulation using DER Power Factor, Volt-Var, and Extremum Seeking Control Methods,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 Jun 2017.
M. Reno and R. J. Broderick (2017), Predetermined Time-Step Solver for Rapid Quasi-Static Time Series (QSTS) of Distribution Systems.
M. Reno, J. Deboever, and B. Mather (2017), Motivation and Requirements for Quasi-Static Time Series (QSTS) for Distribution System Analysis.
M. Reno, R. J. Broderick, and L. Blakely (2017), Machine Learning for Rapid QSTS Simulations using Neural Networks.
Jay Johnson (2017), Roadmap for Photovoltaic Cyber Security, SAND2017-13262.
Lave, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick (2017), Creation and Value of Synthetic High-Frequency Solar Simulations for Distribution System QSTS Simulations.
M. El-Khatib, J. Johnson, and D. Schoenwald, “Virtual Power Plant Feedback Control Design for Fast and Reliable Energy Market and Contingency Reserve Dispatch,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 Jun 2017.
M. El-Khatib, J. Neely, and J. Johnson, “Evaluation of Fast-Frequency Response Functions in High Penetration Isolated Power Systems,” IEEE PVSC, Washington, DC, 25-30 Jun 2017.
Matthew Lave, Robert J. Broderick, and Matthew J. Reno. “Solar variability zones: Satellite-derived zones that represent high-frequency ground variability.” Solar Energy 151 (2017): 119-128.
Matthew Samuel Lave, Matthew J. Reno, and Robert Joseph Broderick. Creation and Value of Synthetic High-Frequency Solar Simulations for Distribution System QSTS Simulations. in proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), SAND2017-5646C.
Matthew Samuel Lave, Matthew J. Reno, Robert Joseph Broderick, and Jouni Peppanen. Full-Scale Demonstration of Distribution System Parameter Estimation to Improve Low-Voltage Circuit Models. in proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), SAND2017-6054C.
Matthew Samuel Lave, Robert Joseph Broderick, and Laurie Burnham. Targeted Evaluation of Utility-Scale and Distributed Solar Forecasting. in proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), SAND2017-5645C.
Montenegro, R. C. Dugan, and M. J. Reno (2017), Open Source Tools for High Performance Quasi-Static-Time-Series Simulation Using Parallel Processing.
Therrien, M. Belletête, J. Lacroix, and M. J. Reno (2017), Algorithmic Aspects of a Commercial-Grade Distribution System Load Flow Engine.
Z. K. Pecenak, V. R. Disfani, M. J. Reno, and J. Kleissl (2017), Multiphase Distribution Feeder Reduction.
Zhang, S. Grijalva, M. J. Reno, J. Deboever, and R. J. Broderick (2017), A Fast Quasi-Static Time Series (QSTS) Simulation Method for PV Impact Studies Using Voltage Sensitivities of Controllable Elements.
Analysis to Inform CA Grid Integration Rules for PV: Final Report on Inverter Settings for Transmission and Distribution System Performance, EPRI, Technical Report 3002008300, 2016. SAND2016-9164R.
B. Seal, T. Tansy, B. Fox, A. Pochiraju, J. Johnson, J. Henry, F. Cleveland, W. Colavecchio, T. P. Zgonena, S. Hassell, B. Lydic, G. Lum, J. Sharp, C. Tschendel, E. Smith, T. Vargas, D. Hinds, J. McDonald, S. Robles “Final Report for CSI RD&D Solicitation #4 Standard Communication Interface and Certification Test Program for Smart Inverters,” June 2016.
S. Gonzalez, J. Johnson, M. J. Reno, and T. Zgonena, “Small Commercial Inverter Laboratory Evaluations of UL 1741 SA Grid-Support Function Response Times,” IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016. SAND2016-5329C.
H. Zhu, Z. Wang, S. McConnell, R.S. Balog, J. Johnson, “High Fidelity Replay Arc Fault Detection Testbed,” IEEE PVSC, Portland, OR, 5-10 June 2016.
J. Flicker, J. Johnson, “Photovoltaic Ground Fault Detection Recommendations for Array Safety and Operation,” Solar Energy, vol. 140, pp. 34-50, 15 Dec 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.10.017
J. Johnson, J. Neely, J. Delhotal, M. Lave, “Photovoltaic Frequency-Watt Curve Design for Frequency Regulation and Fast Contingency Reserves,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1611-1618, Nov. 2016. doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2016.2598275
J. Johnson, J. Neely, J. Delhotal, M. Lave, “Photovoltaic Frequency-Watt Curve Design for Fast Contingency Reserves,” IEEE PVSC, Portland, OR, 5-10 June 2016.
J. Peppanen, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick, and S. Grijalva, “Distribution System Low-Voltage Circuit Topology Estimation using Smart Metering Data,” IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition, 2016. SAND2015-6817 C.
J. Peppanen, M. J. Reno, Robert J. Broderick and S. Grijalva, “Distribution System Model Calibration with Big Data from AMI and PV Inverters”, in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2016. SAND2015-7431J.
M. Reno and R. J. Broderick, “Statistical Analysis of Feeder and Locational PV Hosting Capacity for 216 Feeders,” IEEE PES General Meeting, 2016. SAND2015-9712C.
M. Reno, J. E. Quiroz, O. Lavrova, and R. H. Byrne, Evaluation of Communication Requirements for Voltage Regulation Control with Advanced Inverters, North American Power Symposium, 2016. SAND2016-5147C.
M. Reno, M. Lave, J. E. Quiroz, and R. J. Broderick, “PV Ramp Rate Smoothing Using Energy Storage to Mitigate Increased Voltage Regulator Tapping,” IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016. SAND2016-5509C.
J. Seuss, M.J. Reno, M. Lave, R.J. Broderick, S. Grijalva, Multi-Objective Advanced Inverter Controls to Dispatch the Real and Reactive Power of Many Distributed PV Systems, SAND2016-0023.
J. Seuss, M. J. Reno, M. Lave, R. J. Broderick, and S. Grijalva, “Advanced Inverter Controls to Dispatch Distributed PV Systems,” IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016. SAND2016-4865C.
J. Seuss, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick, and S. Grijalva, “Analysis of PV Advanced Inverter Functions and Setpoints under Time Series Simulation,” Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2016-4856, 2016.
Jones, C. B., M. Martinez-Ramon, B. H. King, C. Carmignani and J. Stein (2016). Wondering what to blame? Turn PV performance assessments into maintenance action items through the deployment of learning algorithms embedded in a Raspberry Pi device. 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference. Portland, OR. SAND2016-5875C.
Jones, C. B., M. Martınez-Ramonz, R. Smith, C. K. Carmignani, O. Lavrova and J. S. Stein (2016). Automatic Fault Classification of Photovoltaic Strings Based on an In-Situ IV Characterization System and a Gaussian Process Algorithm. 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference. Portland, OR. SAND2016-5689C.
M. Lave, J. E. Quiroz, M. J. Reno, and R. J. Broderick, “High Temporal Resolution Load Variability Compared to PV Variability,” IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016. SAND2016-0596A.
M. Verga, R. Lazzari, J. Johnson, D. Rosewater, C. Messner, J. Hashimoto, SIRFN Draft Test Protocols for Advanced Battery Energy Storage System Interoperability Functions, ISGAN Annex #5 Discussion Paper, 2016.
B. Palmintier, R. Broderick, B. Mather, M. Coddington, K. Baker, F. Ding, M. Reno, M. Lave, and A. Bharatkumar, “On the Path to SunShot: Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating Solar with the Distribution System,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-5D00-65331, 2016. SAND2016-2524R.
J. Peppanen, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick, and S. Grijalva, “Secondary Circuit Model Generation Using Limited PV Measurements and Parameter Estimation,” IEEE PES General Meeting, 2016. SAND2015-10000C.
J. Peppanen, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick, and S. Grijalva, Secondary Circuit Model Creation and Validation with AMI and Transformer Measurements, North American Power Symposium, 2016. SAND2016-4702C.
J. Peppanen, M. J. Reno, X. Zhang, and S. Grijalva, Handling Bad or Missing Smart Meter Data through Advanced Data Imputation, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2016. SAND2016-2510C.
R. J. Broderick, K. Munoz-Ramos, and M. J. Reno, “Accuracy of Clustering as a Method to Group Distribution Feeders by PV Hosting Capacity,” IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition, 2016. SAND2015-7820C.
Rylander, M. J. Reno, J. E. Quiroz, F. Ding, H. Li, R. J. Broderick, B. Mather, and J. Smith, “Methods to Determine Recommended Feeder-Wide Advanced Inverter Settings for Improving Distribution Performance,” IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016. SAND2016-4864C.
S. Gonzalez, J. Johnson, M. Reno, T. Zgonena, “Small Commercial Inverter Laboratory Evaluations of UL 1741 SA Grid-Support Function Response Times,” IEEE PVSC, Portland, OR, 5-10 June 2016.
G. T. Klise, J. Balfour, A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements, SAND 2015-10223.
For additional information on the video above, read the Industry Spotlight Q&A with Jay Johnson.
- Grid Modernization Research at Sandia: Renewable Energy and Distributed Systems Integration
- Grid Modernization Research at Sandia: Power Electronics & Controls
- 2/15/18 IEEE Smart Grid Webinar: Advances in Distribution System Time-Series Analysis for Studying DER Impacts
- Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL)
- Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) and Energy Storage Analysis Laboratory
- Secure and Scalable Microgrid (SSM) Testbed
- Control & Optimization of Networked Energy Technologies (CONET) Laboratory
- Emulytics and Threat Analysis Laboratory
- Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWIFT)
- Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT)
- GridPV Toolbox – a fully-documented set of Matlab functions that can be sued to build distribution grid performance models using the open source distribution modeling tool OpenDSS.
- System Validation Platform (SVP) – The automated system validation platform (SVP) quickly determines the performance of distributed energy resources equipment for a range of interoperable and interconnection functions. This technology has been developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the SunSpec Alliance and is used by labs across the globe in the Smart Grid International Research Facility Network (SIRFN) project.
- Sandia Virtual Power Plant (VPP) Platform – This project provides utilities, grid operators, and distributed energy resource aggregators with a greater capacity to provide voltage and frequency regulation and other grid support functions by aggregating distributed energy resources into secure, reliable virtual power plants (VPP). The VPP optimizes distributed energy resource dispatch and real-time control under high uncertainty. Read more about just one of the VPP projects being conducted at Sandia.
Summer Ferreira | Ph: (505) 844-4864 | Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program Manager
Dr. Summer Ferreira is the Manager for the Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration program, which promotes the research and development of technologies that enable grid modernization and resiliency, along with the large-scale deployment of renewable and distributed energy sources. Prior to her role at RDSI, beginning in 2011, Summer led the Energy Storage Analysis Laboratory at Sandia in support of the DOE Office of Electricity program, after spending the two previous years here at a postdoctoral researcher in hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaics. Summer received her Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
Ross Guttromson | Ph: (505) 284-6096 | Transmission Stability with Emphasis on Renewable Energy Interactions
Ross Guttromson received his B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from Washington State University, and his Executive MBA degree from the University of Washington. Ross is Principal Researcher in the area of Electric Power Systems at Sandia National Laboratories with focus on transmission operations and planning. Ross has held research and management positions at both Sandia National Labs and at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He was also with R.W. Beck and Westinghouse Power Corporation. Mr. Guttromson served on the nuclear submarine USS Tautog (SSN 639), is a licensed Professional Engineer and a Senior Member of the IEEE.
Shamina Hossain-McKenzie | Ph: (505) 844-7454 | Cybersecurity Researcher
Dr. Shamina Hossain-McKenzie is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff in the Cyber Resilience R&D Department at Sandia National Laboratories; she focuses on grid cybersecurity research. She received her electrical engineering Ph. D. and Master’s degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2017 and 2014, respectively, and her B.S. degree from Washington State University in 2012. Her research interest include power system resilience, grid modeling and simulation and DER cybersecurity. Specifically, she leads projects developing intrusion detection systems for protecting PV inverter communications, distributed controller response and cryptography for DER systems.
Robert “Bobby” Jeffers | Ph: (505) 845-8051 | Systems Scientist
Dr. Robert F. Jeffers is a Systems Scientist and Principal Member of the Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories, where he applies system dynamics and power engineering principles to diverse problems concerning the intersection between social, natural, and engineered systems. He is the technical lead for Sandia’s Urban Resilience Initiative which applies Sandia’s expertise in infrastructure modeling, resilience science, and economics to resilience problems at the city scale. Dr. Jeffers’s previous projects include specification of city-wide grid modernization portfolios designed to improve a community-focused and performance-based resilience metric. His current focus is on developing a process to better align community resilience strategies with electric utility investment planning. He is developing approaches to support utilities, regulators, and local governments in this integrated planning process. Prior to his time at Sandia, Dr. Jeffers worked at Idaho National Laboratory as an Energy and Environmental Systems Modeler and Power and Controls Researcher. Dr. Jeffers earned his master’s degree in Electrical Engineering and Power Systems from Virginia Tech, and his doctorate in Environmental Science from Washington State University.
Jay Johnson | Ph: (505) 284-9586 | Smart Grid Integration
Jay Johnson is a senior member of technical staff and leads a number of multidisciplinary, international renewable energy research projects including the coordination of advanced distributed energy resource (DER) interoperability testing in the United States, Europe, and Asia through the Smart Grid International Research Facility Network (SIRFN). Previously, he led the US-Japan collaborative research project on utility-scale PV-smoothing controls using a gas genset and battery at the Mesa del Sol Aperture Center and PNM Prosperity Site. Jay spearheads a laboratory directed research and development project on Virtual Power Plants to provide ancillary services and an internal capabilities development project focused on power system and DER cyber security. Jay Johnson received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Missouri-Rolla and an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Jason Neely | Ph: (505) 845-7677 | Power Electronics and Controls
Jason C. Neely is a researcher at Sandia and has been focusing on power electronics and power electronic converter systems, including microgrid systems, grid integration of renewable energy and energy storage, military power systems, and circuit design for wide bandgap devices since 2010. Previously, he worked in the Intelligent Systems & Robotics Center from 2001-2007. He received his PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue for development of new control techniques for power electronics, and earned his B.S. & M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Missouri-Rolla.
Robert Broderick | Ph: (505) 366-1120 | Utility Distribution Systems Analysis
Robert Broderick is a principal member of technical staff and has led Sandia’s Distribution Grid Integration Program since 2012, a program that has produced leading research on the grid integration of distributed energy resources (DER). Robert’s primary research focus is to remove barriers to greater integration of distributed energy resources into the electricity grid by investigating grid impact simulation and modeling including quasi static time series analysis, hosting capacity analysis, regulatory rules and standards, and resiliency. Prior to working for Sandia, Robert worked as a consultant for TRC Engineers, Inc. focused on solving problems for PV project developers and performing comprehensive grid integration studies for utility clients. Robert worked at PNM (largest IOU utility in New Mexico) as the manager of renewables and developed and managed the successful customer-side PV program, which is expected to achieve over 20 MW of new PV installations in PNM’s service territory. Robert also worked as a senior power engineer in PNM’s Distribution Planning Department and Customer Generation Department. Robert took a lead role in writing New Mexico’s new interconnection standard utilizing industry best practices and IEEE 1547. Robert is a Professional Electrical Engineer and received a master’s degree in power systems engineering from New Mexico State University and a B.A. in Physics from University of Colorado at Boulder.
Jack Flicker | Ph: (505) 284-6810 | Power Electronics Materials and Systems
Jack Flicker is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff at Sandia. His research focuses on power electronics and power electronic converter systems. Since joining Sandia in 2011, Jack’s research has encompassed the entire value chain of power electronics from materials to systems, specifically focusing on the performance and reliability of advanced semiconductor devices, including wide and ultra-wide bandgap devices; design of advanced circuit topologies for power conversion systems; performance, safety, and reliability of power conversion systems; and interconnection and grid support of power converters for microgrid and interconnected grid applications. Jack received his Ph.D. (2011) in Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology for investigating nanoscale back surface collectors for polycrystalline photovoltaic materials. He earned B.S. degrees in physics and chemistry from the Pennsylvania State University in 2006.
Sigifredo Gonzalez | Ph: (505) 845-8942 | Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory
Sigifredo Gonzalez is a principal member of the technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories, and works in the area of utility interconnection standards and grid integration. He currently a working group member of IEEE 1547 full revision and a chair for the revision to IEEE 1547.1 section 5.7 Unintentional Islanding test procedure. Concentrating efforts include laboratory evaluations of electrical power system support function developments in prototype inverters, PV system performance assessments, PV system NEC code compliance and reliability, and PV system interoperability assessments for communication implementation of advanced inverter functions. Sigifredo directs laboratory assessments of PV inverter at the distributed energy technologies laboratory (DETL) at Sandia. He has a master’s degree in electrical engineering from New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, New Mexico.
Matthew Lave | Ph: (925) 294-4676 | Power Electronics Materials and Systems
Matthew Lave is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff. He is an expert at monitoring, analysis, and modeling of PV power production, both for performance assessment and for grid integration studies. Matthew has authored many peer-reviewed journal articles on topics such as solar resource assessment, PV performance modeling, solar variability analysis, optimal tilt angles for PV modules, and the impact of solar variability to electric grid operations. He developed the wavelet variability model (WVM) which is now widely used by researchers, consultants, and utilities for modeling the aggregate solar variability of distributed or utility scale PV plants. Matthew received his PhD in Aerospace Engineering from the University of California, San Diego for developing new methods for modeling and analysis of high-frequency solar variability. He also holds a B.A. in Physics from Occidental College.
Matthew Reno | Ph: (505) 844-3087 | Distribution System Analysis and Protection
Matthew J. Reno is a Senior Member of Technical Staff in the Electric Power Systems Research Department at Sandia National Laboratories. His research focuses on distribution system modelling and analysis with high penetration PV, including advanced software tools for automated analysis of hosting capacity, PV interconnection studies, and rapid Quasi-Static Time Series simulations. Matthew is also involved with the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee for developing guides and standards for protection of microgrids and systems with high penetrations of inverter-based resources. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology and has been at Sandia for the last 10 years.
John Eddy | Ph: (505) 284-1642 | Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization of Distributed Power Systems
John Eddy, Ph.D. is a Principal Member of the Technical Staff in the Math Analysis and Decision Science Department at Sandia National Labs. His research areas include operations research and System of Systems modeling, simulation, and optimization for civilian and military energy systems. He is the primary developer of the R&D 100 award winning Microgrid Design Toolkit funded by the Department of Energy. He received his Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, and Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1999, 2001, and 2005 respectively.
Rachid Darbali-Zamora | Ph: (505) 844-1660 | Renewable Distributed Energy Integration, Simulation, Modeling and Testing
Rachid Darbali-Zamora is a senior member of Sandia’s technical staff in the RDSI program. He received his B.S. and M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez in 2013 and 2016, respectively. He received his Ph.D. in the field of energy engineering at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez. his research interests include; real-time power hardware-in-the-loop simulations, solid state motor controls, renewable energy systems, high density power supplies, electric vehicles and power electronics applied to aerospace systems. Dr. Darbali-Zamora was awarded the NASA Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium (PRSGC) fellowship in 2015, the Tranformational Initiative for Graduate Education and Research (TIGER) fellowship in 2016 and the GEM fellowship in 2018.