Hydrogen Storage

Since the 1960’s, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been an international leader in understanding how hydrogen (in all its isotopic forms) interacts with materials. In the transportation energy realm, our research is mostly focused on developing optimal solid-state methods of storing hydrogen for fuel-cell light-duty vehicles. A limitation of current fuel cell vehicles using high-pressure gaseous storage of hydrogen has been achieving the desired driving range while meeting volume, weight, safety, cost and performance requirements.  Sandia maintains extensive facilities for the design, synthesis and characterization of hydrogen storage materials and has a team of experts to solve important technical problems in this area of research. The SNL team has been developing hydrogen storage systems that can release hydrogen gas with very little energy input, and also that can rapidly take on hydrogen during re-fueling at a hydrogen filling station.  The major hydrogen storage research activities include:

  • fundamental studies of hydrogen interactions with solid-state materials;
  • design and synthesis of promising on-board reversible hydrogen storage materials with exothermic hydrogenation and appropriate kinetics and cycling behavior;
  • understanding processing-structure-property relationships for improved materials performance through compositional, structural, catalytic, and nanostructure modification;
  • developing in situ techniques to characterize hydrogen storage materials and elucidate the role of intermediates, defects and interfaces on hydrogen diffusion and reaction pathways;
  • engineering and process development to accelerate the transition of the best hydrogen storage materials to a commercial reality.

The unique SNL capabilities are rooted in interdisciplinary research that enables self-assembled materials, tailored alloys, multicomponent composites, destabilized and nanostructured metal hydrides to be conceived, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for vehicular hydrogen storage. The team’s expertise ranges from solid-state physics, surface chemistry, materials theory, simulation, design, and synthesis to using state-of-the-art instruments to evaluate materials performance under various process parameters and extreme environments. Phase equilibrium codes using a large thermochemical hydride database developed by Sandia are used to predict the plateau hydrogen pressure and concentration of all relevant species at equilibrium. State-of-the-art experimental capabilities available at Sandia and through our technical collaborations include numerous glove-boxes and Schlenk lines, high-pressure stations (>2000 bar H2 pressure), PCT and Sieverts instruments, in situ X-Ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, STM, TEM, TGA-DSC, STMBMS, FTIR, Raman, NMR and synchrotron-based soft-x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies.  Multiple cutting-edge studies are carried out through collaborations with other national laboratories, universities and companies.

Capabilities

pct_sievert      insitu_dscrga      tga-dsc-mass-spect      high-pressure-dsc      nitrogen-glovebox      argon-glovebox      high-temp-dsc      temp-prog-ovens      sem-edx-spec      insitu-raman      low-press-porosimetry      high-press-porosimetry      metal-thin-film-sputter      variable-temp-microscopy      electron-microprobe      trans-electron-microscopy      var-temp-nmr-spectroscopy      var-temp-xray-diff
PCT and Sieverts Instruments

Publications

acta N. Yang, J.K. Yee, Z. Zhang, L. Kurmanaeva, P. Cappillino, V. Stavila, E.J. Lavernia, C.S. Marchi, “Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd-10Rh processed by cryomilling”, Acta Materialia, 2015, 82, 41–50.

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hydrogen-energy Using metal hydride H2 storage in mobile fuel cell equipment: Design and predicted performance of a metal hydride fuel cell mobile light. C. Song, L.E. Klebanoff, T.A. Johnson, B.S. Chao, A.F. Socha, J.M. Oros, C.J. Radley, S. Wingert, J.S. Breit, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39, 14896-14911.

Full Article

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phys_chem An investigation into the hydrogen storage characteristics of Ca(BH4)2/LiNH2 and Ca(BH4)2/NaNH2: Evidence of Intramolecular destabilization Poonyayant, V. Stavila, E.H. Majzoub, L.E. Klebanoff, R. Behrens, M. Ulutagay-Kartin, P. Pakawatpanurut, E.S. Hecht, J.S. Breit, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2014, 118, 14759-14769.

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metallurgic Accelerating the Understanding and Development of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Review of the Five-year Efforts of the Three DOE Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence. L.E. Klebanoff, K.C. Ott, L.J. Simpson, K. O’Malley and N.T. Stetson, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 2014, 1A, 81-117.

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hydrogen-energy A Comparative Analysis of the Cryo-compression and Cryo-adsorption Hydrogen Storage Methods, G. Petitpas, P. Bénard, L.E. Klebanoff, J. Xiao and S. Aceves, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39, 10564-10572.

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mrs Nanoconfined light metal hydrides for reversible hydrogen storage, Petra E. de Jongh, Mark Allendorf, John J. Vajo, Claudia Zlotea, MRS Bulletin, 2013, 38, 488-494.

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journal_matchem Probing the unusual anion mobility of LiBH4 confined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon frameworks via solid state NMR and quasielastic neutron scattering, X. Liu, E.H. Majzoub, V. Stavila, R. Bhakta, M.D. Allendorf, M. Conradi, N. Verdal, T. Udovic, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2013, 1, 9935-9941.

Full Article

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hydrogen-energy 5 years of hydrogen storage research in the US DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE), L.E. Klebanoff, J.O. Keller, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38, 4533-4576.

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acsnano Reversible hydrogen storage by NaAlH4 confined within a titanium-functionalized MOF-74(Mg) nanoreactors, V. Stavila, R.K. Bhakta, T.M. Alam, E.H. Majzoub, M.D. Allendorf, ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 9807-9817.

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pccp Thermodynamics and kinetics of NaAlH4 nanocluster decomposition, R.K. Bhakta, S. Maharrey, V. Stavila, E.H. Majzoub, M.D. Allendorf, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, 14, 8160-8169.

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journal_matchem3 Nanoporous Pd Alloys with Compositionally Tunable Hydrogen Storage Properties Prepared by Nanoparticle Consolidation, P.J. Cappillino, J.D. Sugar, M.A. Hekmaty, B.W. Jacobs, V. Stavila, P.G. Kotula, J.M. Chames, N.Y. Yang, D.B. Robinson, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2012, 22, 14013–14022.

Full Article

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hydrogen-energy New Insights into the Mechanism of Activation and Hydrogen Absorption of (2LiNH2-MgH2), W. Luo, V. Stavila, L.E. Klebanoff, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2012, 37, 6646–6652. hydrogenenergy4
hst Hydrogen Storage Technology, Materials and Applications, Editor-in-Chief L.E. Klebanoff, (Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton) published December 12, 2012.

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