Sandia has the expertise in synthesizing and characterizing ion-containing separators employed in fuel cells and electrolysers. For the past 12 years, Sandia has developed and patented a novel class of poly(phenylene)s that has shown promise in both acidic and alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries and electrolysers. Sandia has received industry investment totaling over $6M through work-for-others (WFOs), Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), and licensing investments. In 2013, Sandia developed an alkaline separator in a fuel cell that maintained low resistance over 300hrs, while a popular candidate failed after only 100hrs. The Sandia alkaline separator technologies show a long-term durability (greater than 2000 hrs.) as an electrolyser separator, compared to 800 hrs obtained by a commercial standard.