Energy and Climate

Solar Market Transformation

Past Market Transformation Activities

On April 4, 2012, in

Current activates have built upon past efforts, most notably the Solar American Cities (now Communities) program in recent years. Solar American Cities Sandia provided technical assistance to U.S. cities, nongovernment organizations, and federal facilities that won awards for our services, which included facilitating solar site selection and optimization; providing systems performance projections; identifying and quantifying […]


On April 4, 2012, in

At the residential and commercial levels, poorly sited projects can result in reduced system performance, among other things; while at the utility scale, where a project is sited may result in increased costs associated with access to transmission, environmental impacts, and other potential conflicts. Water Availability Water availability is a critical issue with the potential […]


On April 4, 2012, in

Workers who install systems have a critical role in reducing both the upfront and the lifecycle costs of PV systems. Labor costs represent a significant portion of total system costs. And although the effect is not observed in upfront $/watt costs, subpar installation practices increase cost by limiting system performance, effectively increasing the system levelized […]

Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnection

On April 4, 2012, in

Costs associated with the permitting, inspection, and interconnection processes can be reduced through streamlining and standardizing requirements and application formats across authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ) and utilities, as well as training code officials and system-installer employees. Opportunity cost is also important to nonhardware costs as fixes and reworks will be mitigated as a direct result […]


On April 4, 2012, in

Many parties take on some measures of risk in the investment and commitment of funds to PV projects. Project risk, resource risk, technology risk, policy risk, performance risk, and market risk are just some of factors that are considered. Insurance is a form of risk mitigation that may be used to hedge against loss risks. […]

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