Kenneth Armijo

/Kenneth Armijo
Kenneth Armijo

Kenneth Armijo

R&D S&E, Systems Engineering



Email: kmarmij@sandia.gov
Phone: (505) 284-3425

Biography

Dr. Kenneth Armijo is a systems engineering staff member who leads molten salt and molten alkali metals research and development at Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). He holds a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, with minors in Energy and Resources, and business credentials in Management of Technology from Berkeley’s Haas School of Business. Dr. Armijo also received a master’s in science in Mechanical Engineering from U.C. Berkeley. Presently, Dr. Armijo’s research in CSP consists of system design for high-temperature (>720°C) test loops, employing ternary chloride molten salts and alkali metals (sodium) as the heat transfer fluid. His research has also consisted of falling particles for centralized concentrating solar receivers, and he leads research activities pertaining to solar Stirling engine applications, as well as solar reactor research and development and high-flux materials characterization. Dr. Armijo also serves as a lead test engineer for high-temperature materials research for power towers and solar furnace investigations.

Education:

Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, May 2005
Master of Science, Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, May 2008
Doctor of Philosophy, Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, December 2011

Key Publications:

Journals:

  • Ho, C. K., J. M. Christian, J. E. Yellowhair, K. M. Armijo, W. J. Kolb, S. Jeter, M. Golob, C. Nguyen, “On-Sun Performance Evaluation of Alternative High-Temperature Falling Particle Receiver Designs,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 141, no. 1 (2019): 011009.
  • Armijo, K. M., R. K. Harrison, B. H. King, and J. B. Martin, “Spectral Derates Phenomena of Atmospheric Components on Multi-Junction CPV Technologies,”  AIP Proceedings, 1616, no. 1 (2014): 264-271.
  • Armijo, K. M., J. Johnson, M. Hibbs, and A. Fresquez, “Quantifying Photovoltaic Fire Danger Reduction with Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 24, no. 4 (2014): 507-516.
  • Armijo, K. M., and V. P. Carey, “Gravity-assisted heat pipe with strong-Marangoni fluids for waste heat recovery of single and dual-junction photovoltaic cells,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 135, no. 2 (2012).
  • Armijo, K. M., and V. P. Carey, “An analytical and experimental study of a gravity-driven heat pipe with strong-Marangoni fluids for enhanced thermal transport,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 64, (2012) 70-78.
  • Armijo, K. M., and V. P. Carey, “Impact of Microchannel Boundary Conditions and Porosity Variation on Diffusion Layer Saturation and Transport in Fuel Cells,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, 9, no. 4 (2012).
  • Armijo, K. M., and V. P. Carey, “An Experimental Study of Heat Pipe Performance Using Binary Mixture Fluids that Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects,” Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 3, no. 3 (2011): 031003.
  • Armijo, K. M., and V. P. Carey, “Prediction of Binary Mixture Boiling Heat Transfer in Systems with Strong Marangoni Effects,” Journal of Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, 1, no. 2 (2010): 1-6, 2010.

Conference Proceedings:

  • Armijo, K. M., J. E. Yellowhair, J. D. Ortega, and J. Clair, “Dynamic Load Mechanical Modelling of a 10 MW Tensile Ganged Heliostat Prototype.” 22nd SolarPACES Conference, Casablanca, Morocco, 2018.
  • Armijo, K. M., J. D. Ortega, A. Moya, J. Christian, G. Peacock, C. Andraka, J. Yellowhair, and J. Clair, “Mechanical and modal phenomena of a ganged heliostat.” ICOPE16, ASME Power & Energy Conference & Exhibition, Charlotte, NC, 2016.
  • Ho, C. K., J. M. Christian, J. E. Yellowhair, K. M. Armijo, W. J. Kolb, S. Jeter, and C. Nguyen, “Performance Evaluation of a High-Temperature Falling Particle Receiver.” In ASME 2016 10th International Conference on Energy Sustainability collocated with the ASME 2016 Power Conference and the ASME 2016 14th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016, pp. V001T04A006-V001T04A006.
  • Ho, C. K., J. M. Christian, J. Yellowhair, K. M. Armijo, W. J. Kolb, S. Jeter, M. Golob, and C. Nguyen,“Performance evaluation of a high-temperature falling particle receiver.” ASME Power Energy Conference, Charlotte, NC, 2016.
  • Yellowhair, J., C. K. Ho, K. M. Armijo, K. Nakamura, “Sensitivity of Heliostat Facet Parameters on Plant LCOE.” 22nd SolarPACES Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2016.
  • Yellowhair, J. and K. M. Armijo, “Development of Levelized Cost of Mirror Optics (LCOMO) for Evaluation of Collector Optics.” SolarPACES 2016, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2016.
  • Armijo, K. M., and C. Andraka, “Phenomenological studies on sodium boiling for CSP applications: A safety review.” 21st SolarPACES Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2015.
  • Armijo, K. M., C. K. Ho, R. Anderson, J. Ortega, J. Christian, and S. Babiniec, “Magnetic Field Flow Phenomena in a Falling Particle Receiver,” 21st SolarPACES Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2015.
  • Armijo, K. M.,  B. B. Yang, D. Riley, and O. Lavrova, “Predictive reliability for AC photovoltaic modules on electro-thermal phenomena.” 42th PVSC Conference, New Orleans, LA, 2015.
  • Johnson, J., K. M. Armijo, D. Eizips, B. Shrestha, and M. Avrustky, “Arc-fault unwanted tripping survey with UL 1699B-listed products.” 42th PVSC Conference, New Orleans, LA, 2015.
  • Schindelholz, E., B. B. Yang, K. M. Armijo, and B. B. McKenzie, “Characterization of Fire Hazards of Aged and Accelerated Life Tests of Photovoltaic Balance-of-System Connectors.” PVSC Conference, New Orleans, LA. 2015.
  • Armijo, K. M. and C. Andraka, “Phenomenological studies on sodium boiling for CSP applications: A safety review.” 21st SolarPACES Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2015.
  • Armijo, K. M., C. K. Ho, R. Anderson, J. Ortega, J. Christian, and S. Babiniec, “Magnetic Field Flow Phenomena in a Falling Particle Receiver.” 21st SolarPACES Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2015.
  • Armijo, K. M., R. K. Harrison, B. H. King, and J. B. Martin, “Spectral derates phenomena of atmospheric components on multi-junction CPV modules.” 10th International Conference on Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems, Albuquerque, NM, 2014.
  • Armijo, K. M., M. Hibbs, J. Johnson, and A. Fresquez,  “Characterizing fire danger from low power PV arc-faults.” 40th PVSC Conference, Denver, CO, 2014.
  • Johnson, J. and K. M. Armijo, “Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum.” 40th PVSC Conference, Denver, CO, 2014.
  • Yang, B. B., J. Johnson, K. M. Armijo, J. M. Taylor, and N. R. Sorensen, “Arc Fault Risk Assessment/Degradation Model for Photovoltaic Connectors.” 40th PVSC Conference, Denver, CO, 2014.
  • Armijo, K. M., J. Johnson, M. Hibbs, and A. Fresquez, “Quantifying Photovoltaic Fire Danger Reduction with Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters.” 29th EUPVSEC Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2014. Top 20 Paper Award.
  • , J., K. Armijo, J. Johnson, “Recommendations for RCD Ground Fault Detector Trip Thresholds.” 29th EUPVSEC Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2014.
  • Armijo, K. M., “Performance impact of solar gain on photovoltaic inverters and utility-scale energy generation systems.” Presented at the 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Tampa, FL, 2013.
  • K. M. Armijo and V. P. Carey, “An Experimental Study of Heat Pipe Performance Using Binary Mixture Fluids that Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects.” ASME International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC), Washington DC, 2010.

SAND Reports

  • K. M. Armijo, J. D. Ortega, S. B. Rodriguez, J. N. Kruichak, D. Reinholtz, H. Yoon, D. Madden, A. Cook and D. Smidt, Advanced Turbulence Nitrogen Dosing Device for Beverages, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2019-0766, 2019).
  • M. S. Walker, K. M. Armijo, J. E. Yellowhair, C. K. Ho, A. Bohinsky, J. Halfinger, and H. Feinroth, High Temperature Silicon Carbide Receiver Tubes for Concentrating Solar Power, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2019-0057, 2019).
  • D. Madden, K. M. Armijo, L. Garcia-Maldonado and J. Zeng, Analysis and Experiment of Management Sciences, Inc.’s Arc-Fault Connector Self-Extinguishing Mechanisms, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2018-1252, 2018).
  • A. Muna, C. LaFluer, K. M. Amijo, P. Clem, A. Tanbakuchi, “Aluminum High-Energy Arc-Fault (HEAF) Particle Size Characterization,” NUREG/CR, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
  • J. Flicker and K. M. Armijo, Analysis and Experiment of Management Sciences, Inc.’s Arc Fault Protection Connectors, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2018-0876, 2018).
  • J. Yellowhair, K. M. Armijo, C. E. Andraka, J. D. Ortega, and J. Clair, Mechanical and Optical Performance Evaluation of the Skysun Tensile Ganged Heliostat Concept, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-7101, 2017).
  • K. M. Armijo, J. Johnson, R. K. Harrison, S. Rodriguez, O. Lavrova, and E. J. Schindelholz, Arc-Fault Primer: Numerical, Analytical, and Experimental Characteristics of Initiation and Sustainment of Arc Plasmas, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-1019, 2017).
  • K. M. Armijo, E. J. Schindelholz, M. E. Gordon, H-D. A. Nguyen, E. Spoerke, N. R. Sorensen, K. Holder, S. Qin and J. Grunlan, High Tech Applications of Dirt: Functional Barrier Films Made from Polymer Clay Nanocomposites, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-13708, 2017).
  • E. D. Spoerke, K. M. Armijo, E. J. Schindelholz, M. E. Gordon, H-D. A. Nguyen, N. R. Sorensen, K. Holder, S. Qin and J. Grunlan, Adding Some ‘Dirt’ to ‘Clean’ Energy: Applying Clay Nanocomposites in Solar Cells, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-12297, 2017).
  • S. Rodriguez, K. M. Armijo, B. Beeny, M. Denman, B. Cipiti, N. Shoman, D. Farley, D. Ames, C. E. Andraka, R. Briggs, R. Sisson, Advancing Molten Salts and Fuels at Sandia National Laboratories, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-10478R, 2017).
  • K. M Armijo, B. Lance and C. K. Ho, Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND-2017-10330, 2017).
  • O. Lavrova, J. Flicker, J. Johnson, K. M. Armijo, S. Gonzalez, E. J. Schindelholz, N. R. Sorensen, and B. B. Yang. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-0998R. , 2017).
  • K. M. Armijo, J. Johnson, R. K. Harrison, S. Rodriguez, O. Lavrova and E. J. Schindelholz, Arc-Fault Primer: Numerical, Analytical, and Experimental Characteristics of Initiation and Sustainment of Arc Plasmas, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2017-1019, 2017).
  • M. Mehos, C. Turchi, J. Jorgenson, P. Denholm, C. K. Ho, and K. M. Armijo, “On the Path to SunShot-Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology, Performance, and Dispatchability,” (EERE Publication and Product Library, No. NREL/TP-5500-65688, SAND-2016-2237 R, 2016).
  • K. M. Armijo, M. J. Monda, G. P. Brunson, S. B. Rodriguez, J. Yellowhair, Design Report Final-CUB Inc., (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2016-11856R, 2016).
  • K. M. Armijo, and S. L. Shinde, Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems,” (SAND2016-11399, 2016).
  • M. Mehos, C. Turchi, J. Jorgenson, P. Denholm, C. K. Ho and K. M. Armijo, “On the Path to SunShot: Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology, Performance, and Dispatchability,” (Department of Energy, NREL/TP-5500-65688, SAND2016-2237 R, 2016).
  • K. M. Armijo, E. J. Schindelholz, B. B. Yang, J. M. Taylor, N. R. Sorensen, O. Lavrova, PV Arc-Fault Degradation Phenomena & Model Development for Photovoltaic Connectors, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2015-8727, 2015).
  • E. J. Schindelholz, B. B. Yang, K. M. Armijo, B. B. McKenzie, J. M. Taylor, N. R. Sorensen and O. Lavrova, Characterization of Fire Hazards of Aged Photovoltaic Balance-of-System Connectors, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2015-0629, 2015).
  • K. M. Armijo and J. Yellowhair, Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2014-19826, 2014).
  • K. M. Armijo and J. D. Johnson, Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum,”( Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2014-4594, 2014).
  • B. B. Yang, J. D. Johnson, K. M. Armijo, J. M. Taylor and N. R. Sorensen, Photovoltaic BOS Connector Accelerated Test for Reliability Model Development and Arc-Fault Risk Assessment, (Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2014-1403, 2014).

Patents

  • Armijo, K. M., R. K. Harrison and J. E. Yellowhair. Modular Low-Cost Trackerless Spectral Sensor. US Patent. 15/834,964, 2018.
  • Spoerke, E. D., M. E. Gordon, E. Schindelholz, K. M. Armijo, N. R. Sorensen, A. Martino and J. Grunlan. Nanocomposite Barrier Films for Photovoltaic Applications. US Patent. 15603877, 2017.
  • Armijo, K. M., C. K. Ho, R. Anderson, S. Babinec and M. Mazumder. Magnetic Field Falling Particle Solar Receiver Systems and Methods. US Patent. 62154922, 2015.