Sandia Energy > Programs > Sustainable Transportation > Hydrogen and Fuel Cells > Hydrogen Safety, Codes, and Standards > Hydrogen Risk Assessment Model (HyRAM) The HyRAM toolkit is the first-ever software toolkit that integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing hydrogen hazards’ impact on people and structures. HyRAM incorporates generic probabilities for equipment failures and probabilistic models for heat-flux impact on humans and structures, with computationally and experimentally validated models of hydrogen release and flame physics. The initial modules can be used to quantify the likelihood and thermal consequences associated with gaseous hydrogen releases from user-defined hydrogen installations. Future development activities will integrate additional consequence models and develop user interfaces for additional audiences. When completed, the toolkit will enable industry-, SDOs (standards development organizations)-, and CDO (code development organizations)-led quantitative risk assessment and performance-based engineering with state-of-the-art, validated science and engineering models. The HyRAM software is available under an open source license. Access the source code for HyRAM via GitHub Download the most recent build of the Windows-only installer Note: please completely uninstall any previous versions of HyRAM before installing. Overview HyRAM Overview Developing hydrogen codes and standards is challenging because the relevant models and information span multiple science and engineering disciplines. The HyRAM toolkit integrates state-of-the-art models and data for assessing hydrogen safety. HyRAM provides a common platform for stakeholders conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence analysis for hydrogen systems. The resulting information provides the scientific basis to ensure code requirements are consistent, logical, and defensible. Features Generic data for gaseous hydrogen (GH2) systems: component leak frequencies, ignition probability; modifiable by users Models of GH2 physical effects for consequence modeling Release characteristics (plumes, accumulation) Flame properties ( jet fires, deflagration within enclosures) Probabilistic models for human harm from thermal and overpressure hazards Fast running: to accommodate rapid iteration Calculates common risk metrics for user-defined systems: FAR, AIR, PLL; frequency of fires Ongoing development activities to add liquid hydrogen systems and features to add usability Applications QRA and consequence calculations used to inform GH2 separation distances (NFPA 2, 2008) QRA results used to inform indoor fueling requirements (NFPA 2, 2011) Developed performance-based framework for establishing safety distances & mitigations (NFPA 2, 2016 and ISO TR-19880) Ongoing activities: Liquid hydrogen separation distance Future opportunities: Evacuation zone analysis, enclosure risk modeling Sample Data Risk Metric Value PLL 7.362e-05 FAR 0.0168 AIR 3.362e-07 Scenario End State Type Avg. Events/Year 100pct Release No Ignition 0.0008 10pct Release No Ignition 0.0012 1pct Release No Ignition 0.0015 0.1pct Release No Ignition 0.0050 0.01pct Release No Ignition 0.0348 Sample HyRAM output: plots of jet flame temperature and heat flux for user-defined hydrogen releases; PLL, FAR, AIR, and frequency of unignited releases from a user-defined hydrogen installation Questions Addressed Given a user-defined system, risk analysts can use HyRAM to answer the following types of questions: How would changes to system design affect overall risk? Which design is the safest? Will this enhance system safety? (If used with an economic model: is the increase in system cost justified?) What is the likelihood of a release from an installation? How likely is it that a jet fire or deflagration would occur? What is the heat flux from a jet flame associated with a specific hydrogen release? At what distance does heat flux reach the no-harm threshold? Documentation HyRAM Documentation Suggested citation for HyRAM 3.1.0: Brian D. Ehrhart, Cianan Sims, Ethan Hecht, Alice B. Muna, Katrina M. Groth, John T. Reynolds, Myra L. Blaylock, Erin Carrier, Isaac W. Ekoto, and Gregory W. Walkup. HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models), Version 3.1.0. Sandia National Laboratories (May 11, 2021); software available at https://hyram.sandia.gov. HyRAM 3.1 Technical Reference Manual. Brian D. Ehrhart and Ethan S. Hecht. Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models (HyRAM) Version 3.1 Technical Reference Manual. SAND2021-5812. May 2021. HyRAM Validation Report. Brian D. Ehrhart, Ethan S. Hecht, and Jamal A. Mohmand. Validation and Comparison of HyRAM Physics Models. SAND2021-5811. May 2021. HyRAM 2.0 User Guide. Guillermo Feliciano Morales, Brian D. Ehrhart, and Alice B. Muna. HyRAM V2.0 User Guide. SAND2019-8940. July 2019. We recommend including the full version number (e.g. HyRAM 2.0.0) in your work. The version number can be found in HyRAM on Help/About HyRAM. Historical References HyRAM 3.0 Technical Reference Manual. Brian D. Ehrhart and Ethan S. Hecht. Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models (HyRAM) Version 3.0 Technical Reference Manual. SAND2020-10600. September 2020. HyRAM 1.1 Technical Reference Manual. KM Groth, ES Hecht, JT Reynolds, ML Blaylock, EE Carrier. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.1 Technical Reference Manual. SAND2017-2998. March 2017 Suggested citation for HyRAM 1.1: Katrina M. Groth, Ethan Hecht, John T. Reynolds, Myra L. Blaylock, Erin Carrier HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models), Version 1.1. Sandia National Laboratories, (2/28/2017); software available at http://hyram.sandia.gov Suggested citation for HyRAM 1.0: Katrina M. Groth, Ethan Hecht, John T. Reynolds, Myra L. Blaylock, Isaac W. Ekoto, and Gregory W. Walkup (2016). HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models), Version 1.0. Sandia National Laboratories, 2016; software available at http://hyram.sandia.gov. HyRAM 1.1 User guide. Ethan A. Sena, Brian D. Ehrhart & Alice B. Muna. HyRAM V1.1 User Guide. SAND2018-0749, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, January 2018. HyRAM 1.0 Technical reference manual. Katrina M. Groth, Ethan S. Hecht & John T. Reynolds. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.0 technical reference manual. SAND2015-10216, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, November 2015. HyRAM 1.0 User guide. Katrina M. Groth, Hannah R. Zumwalt & Andrew J. Clark. HyRAM V1.0 User Guide. SAND2016-3385 R, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, March 2016. HyRAM overview webinar and slides. HyRAM Discussion Forum on H2Tools Conference Papers: Katrina M. Groth and Ethan S. Hecht. HyRAM: A methodology and toolkit for Quantitative Risk Assessment of Hydrogen Systems In Proceedings of the International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2015), Yokohama, Japan, October 19-21, 2015. K. M. Groth and A. V. Tchouvelev. A toolkit for integrated deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment for hydrogen infrastructure Proceedings of the International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM 12), Honolulu, HI, 22-27 June, 2014. Sandia National Laboratories’ Analyses Conducted with HyRAM A. C. LaFleur, A. B. Muna and K. M. Groth. Application of Quantitative Risk Assessment for Performance-Based Permitting of Hydrogen Fueling Stations In Proceedings of the International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2015), Yokohama, Japan, October 19-21, 2015.A. C. LaFleur, A. B. Muna and K. M. Groth. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template: Hydrogen Refueling Station, SAND2015-4500, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, June, 2015V. Tchouvelev, K. M. Groth, P. Benard and T. Jordan. A Hazard Assessment Toolkit For Hydrogen Applications Proceedings of the 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC 2014), 2014.K. M. Groth, J. L. LaChance and A. P. Harris. Design-stage QRA for indoor vehicular hydrogen fueling systems Proceedings of the European Society for Reliability Annual Meeting (ESREL 2013), Amsterdam, September 29 – October 2, 2013.K. M. Groth, J. L. LaChance and A. P. Harris. Early-Stage Quantitative Risk Assessment to Support Development of Codes and Standard Requirements for Indoor Fueling of Hydrogen Vehicles SAND2012-10150, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, November, 2012. Contact Brian EhrhartHyRAM Team Lead(505) firstname.lastname@example.org Ethan HechtHydrogen Behavior Expert(925) email@example.com Chris LaFleurHydrogen Safety Codes and Standards Manager(505) firstname.lastname@example.org Sandia’s Hydrogen Program supports the nation’s energy strategy—helping to diversify America’s energy sector and reduce our dependence on foreign oil through the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. HyRAM is developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Sandia National Laboratories.