Geologic materials and the fluids they contain have diverse physical properties, chemical properties, and configurations. For example, rock that holds oil has pores that can be as small as nano- to micro-meters in size. These pores are dispersed throughout in ways that can be well-connected or poorly connected due to the properties of the rock. This variability directly impacts how fluid flows and where it is located in the subsurface. This variability also pushes the bounds of our ability to characterize, image, and sense resources in enough detail. Current production methods only recover an estimated 5 to 25 percent of a reservoir’s total available volume. This is partly due to a poor understanding of how fluids flow in the subsurface. This is especially true for fractures and poorly understood geomaterials such as shale.