Developing hydrogen codes and standards is challenging because the relevant models and information span multiple science and engineering disciplines. The HyRAM toolkit integrates state-of-the-art models and data for assessing hydrogen safety. HyRAM provides a common platform for stakeholders conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence analysis for hydrogen systems. The resulting information provides the scientific basis to ensure code requirements are consistent, logical, and defensible.
- Generic data for gaseous hydrogen (GH2) systems:
component leak frequencies, ignition probability; modifiable by users
- Models of GH2 physical effects for consequence modeling
- Release characteristics (plumes, accumulation)
- Flame properties ( jet fires, deflagration within enclosures)
- Probabilistic models for human harm from thermal and overpressure hazards
- Fast running: to accommodate rapid iteration
- Calculates common risk metrics for user-defined systems:
FAR, AIR, PLL; frequency of fires
- Ongoing development activities to add liquid hydrogen systems and features to add usability
- QRA and consequence calculations used to inform GH2 separation distances (NFPA 2, 2008)
- QRA results used to inform indoor fueling requirements (NFPA 2, 2011)
- Developed performance-based framework for establishing safety distances & mitigations (NFPA 2, 2016 and ISO TR-19880)
- Ongoing activities: Liquid hydrogen separation distance (NPFA 2, 2019)
- Future opportunities: Evacuation zone analysis, enclosure risk modeling
||End State Type
Sample HyRAM output: plots of jet flame temperature and heat flux for user-defined hydrogen releases; PLL, FAR, AIR, and frequency of unignited releases from a user-defined hydrogen installation
Given a user-defined system, risk analysts can use HyRAM to answer the following types of questions:
- How would changes to system design affect overall risk?
- Which design is the safest?
- Will this enhance system safety? (If used with an economic model: is the increase in system cost justified?)
- What is the likelihood of a release from an installation?
- How likely is it that a jet fire or deflagration would occur ?
- What is the heat flux from a jet flame associated with a specific hydrogen release?
- At what distance does heat flux reach the no-harm threshold?
About Sandia’s Hydrogen Program
Sandia’s Hydrogen Program supports the nation’s energy strategy —helping to diversify America’s energy sector and reduce our dependence on foreign oil through the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. HyRAM is developed for the U. S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Sandia National Laboratories.
Suggested citation for HyRAM 1.1: Katrina M. Groth, Ethan Hecht, John T. Reynolds, Myra L. Blaylock, Erin Carrier HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models), Version 1.1. Sandia National Laboratories, (2/28/2017); software available at http://hyram.sandia.gov
HyRAM 1.1 Technical Reference Manual. KM Groth, ES Hecht, JT Reynolds, ML Blaylock, EE Carrier. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.1 Technical Reference Manual. SAND2017-2998. March 2017
Katrina M. Groth, Ethan Hecht, John T. Reynolds, Myra L. Blaylock, Isaac W. Ekoto, and Gregory W. Walkup (2016). HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models), Version 1.0. Sandia National Laboratories, 2016; software available at http://hyram.sandia.gov.
We also recommend including the full version number (e.g. HyRAM 220.127.116.11) in your work. The version number can be found in HyRAM on Help/About HyRAM.
- HyRAM 1.0 Technical reference manual. Katrina M. Groth, Ethan S. Hecht & John T. Reynolds. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.0 technical reference manual. SAND2015-10216, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, November 2015.
- HyRAM 1.0 User guide. Katrina M. Groth, Hannah R. Zumwalt & Andrew J. Clark. HyRAM V1.0 User Guide. SAND2016-3385 R, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, March 2016.
- HyRAM overview webinar and slides.
- HyRAM Discussion Forum on H2Tools
- Conference papers:
SNL analyses conducted with HyRAM
- A. C. LaFleur, A. B. Muna and K. M. Groth. Application of Quantitative Risk Assessment for Performance-Based Permitting of Hydrogen Fueling Stations In Proceedings of the International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2015), Yokohama, Japan, October 19-21, 2015.
- A. C. LaFleur, A. B. Muna and K. M. Groth. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template: Hydrogen Refueling Station, SAND2015-4500, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, June, 2015
- V. Tchouvelev, K. M. Groth, P. Benard and T. Jordan. A Hazard Assessment Toolkit For Hydrogen Applications Proceedings of the 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC 2014), 2014.
- K. M. Groth, J. L. LaChance and A. P. Harris. Design-stage QRA for indoor vehicular hydrogen fueling systems Proceedings of the European Society for Reliability Annual Meeting (ESREL 2013), Amsterdam, September 29 – October 2, 2013.
- K. M. Groth, J. L. LaChance and A. P. Harris. Early-Stage Quantitative Risk Assessment to Support Development of Codes and Standard Requirements for Indoor Fueling of Hydrogen Vehicles SAND2012-10150, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, November, 2012.