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The HyRAM toolkit is the first-ever software toolkit that integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing hydrogen hazards’ impact on people and structures. HyRAM incorporates generic probabilities for equipment failures and probabilistic models for heat-flux impact on humans and structures, with computationally and experimentally validated models of hydrogen release and flame physics.

The initial modules can be used to quantify the likelihood and thermal consequences associated with gaseous hydrogen releases from user-defined hydrogen installations. Future development activities will integrate additional consequence models and develop user interfaces for additional audiences. When completed, the toolkit will enable industry-, SDOs (standards development organizations)-, and CDO (code development organizations)-led quantitative risk assessment and performance-based engineering with state-of-the-art, validated science and engineering models.

Overview

Developing hydrogen codes and standards is challenging because the relevant models and information span multiple science and engineering disciplines. The HyRAM toolkit integrates state-of-the-art models and data for assessing hydrogen safety. HyRAM provides a common platform for stakeholders conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence analysis for hydrogen systems. The resulting information provides the scientific basis to ensure code requirements are consistent, logical, and defensible.

Fact Sheet

Features

  • ƒƒGeneric data for gaseous hydrogen (GH2) systems:
    component leak frequencies, ignition probability; modifiable by users
  • Models of GH2 physical effects for consequence modeling
    • Release characteristics (plumes, accumulation)
    • Flame properties ( jet fires, deflagration within enclosures)
  • ƒƒProbabilistic models for human harm from thermal and overpressure hazards
  • ƒƒFast running: to accommodate rapid iteration
  • ƒƒCalculates common risk metrics for user-defined systems:
    FAR, AIR, PLL; frequency of fires
  • Ongoing development activities to add liquid hydrogen systems and features to add usability

Applications

  • ƒƒQRA and consequence calculations used to inform GH2 separation distances (NFPA 2, 2008)
  • QRA results used to inform indoor fueling requirements (NFPA 2, 2011)
  • Developed performance-based framework for establishing safety distances & mitigations (NFPA 2, 2016 and ISO TR-19880)
  • Ongoing activities: Liquid hydrogen separation distance (NPFA 2, 2019)
  • Future opportunities: Evacuation zone analysis, enclosure risk modeling

Sample Data

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Risk Metric Value
PLL 7.362e-05
FAR 0.0168
AIR 3.362e-07
Scenario End State Type Avg. Events/Year
100pct Release No Ignition 0.0008
10pct Release No Ignition 0.0012
1pct Release No Ignition 0.0015
0.1pct Release No Ignition 0.0050
0.01pct Release No Ignition 0.0348

Sample HyRAM output: plots of jet flame temperature and heat flux for user-defined hydrogen releases; PLL, FAR, AIR, and frequency of unignited releases from a user-defined hydrogen installation

Questions Addressed

Given a user-defined system, risk analysts can use HyRAM to answer the following types of questions:

  • How would changes to system design affect overall risk?
  • Which design is the safest?
  • Will this enhance system safety? (If used with an economic model: is the increase in system cost justified?)
  • ƒƒWhat is the likelihood of a release from an installation?
  • How likely is it that a jet fire or deflagration would occur ?
  • What is the heat flux from a jet flame associated with a specific hydrogen release?
  • At what distance does heat flux reach the no-harm threshold?

About Sandia’s Hydrogen Program

Sandia’s Hydrogen Program supports the nation’s energy strategy —helping to diversify America’s energy sector and reduce our dependence on foreign oil through the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. HyRAM is developed for the U. S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Sandia National Laboratories.

HyRAM documentation

Suggested citation for HyRAM: Katrina M. Groth, Ethan Hecht, John T. Reynolds, Myra L. Blaylock, Isaac W. Ekoto, and Gregory W. Walkup (2016). HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models), Version 1.0. Sandia National Laboratories, 2016; software available at http://hyram.sandia.gov

We also recommend including the full version number (e.g. HyRAM 1.0.0.123) in your work. The version number can be found in HyRAM on Help/About HyRAM.

SNL analyses conducted with HyRAM

Latest version: 1.1.0, build 1047

After completing this form, your download link will be available immediately. If you need to download HyRAM again (including to get an updated version), please submit the form again. After you have installed HyRAM, you must request a free registration key to be able to use HyRAM. Instructions for requesting this key are provided when you open HyRAM for the first time.

HyRAM

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Copyright 2015 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, there is a non-exclusive license for use of this work by or on behalf of the U.S. Government. Export of this data may require a license from the United States Government.

For five (5) years from 2/16/2016, the United States Government is granted for itself and others acting on its behalf a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in this data to reproduce, prepare derivative works, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. There is provision for the possible extension of the term of this license. Subsequent to that period or any extension granted, the United States Government is granted for itself and others acting on its behalf a paid-up, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in this data to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, perform publicly and display publicly, and to permit others to do so. The specific term of the license can be identified by inquiry made to Sandia Corporation or DOE.

NEITHER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, NOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NOR SANDIA CORPORATION, NOR ANY OF THEIR EMPLOYEES, MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, OR ASSUMES ANY LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, OR USEFULNESS OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, PRODUCT, OR PROCESS DISCLOSED, OR REPRESENTS THAT ITS USE WOULD NOT INFRINGE PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS.

Any licensee of “HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models) v. 1.0” has the obligation and responsibility to abide by the applicable export control laws, regulations, and general prohibitions relating to the export of technical data. Failure to obtain an export control license or other authority from the Government may result in criminal liability under U.S. laws.


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Katrina Groth
HyRAM Technical Lead
(505) 844-6766
kgroth@sandia.gov
Chris San Marchi
Hydrogen Program Manager
(925) 294-4880
cwsanma@sandia.gov

First published: January 2015. Last modified February 28, 2017.