Guidance on materials selection for hydrogen service is needed to support the deployment of hydrogen as a fuel as well as the development of codes and standards for stationary hydrogen use, hydrogen vehicles, refueling stations, and hydrogen transportation. Materials property measurement is needed on deformation, fracture and fatigue of metals in environments relevant to this hydrogen economy infrastructure. The identification of hydrogen-affected material properties such as strength, fracture resistance and fatigue resistance are high priorities to ensure the safe design of load-bearing structures.

To support the needs of the hydrogen community, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting an extensive review of reports and journal publications to gather existing materials data for inclusion in the Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials. Additionally, Sandia is working internationally with collaborators to acquire newly generated data for inclusion in the Technical Reference. SAND2012-7321 is an archival report issued by Sandia National Laboratories representing the reference information compiled as of September 2012. Individual sections of this report may be updated or added periodically at this website.

See H2Tools list.

Designation Nominal composition Section Revision
Introduction INTR 3/08
Plain Carbon Ferritic Steels
C-Mn Alloys Fe–C–Mn 1100 5/07
Low-Alloy Ferritic Steels
Quenched & Tempered Steels
Cr-Mo Alloys Fe–Cr–Mo 1211 12/05
Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys Fe–Ni–Cr–Mo 1212 12/05
High-Alloy Ferritic Steels
High-Strength Steels
9Ni-4Co Fe–9Ni–4Co-0.20C 1401 1/05
Ferritic Stainless Steels Fe–15Cr 1500 10/06
Duplex Stainless Steels Fe–22Cr–5Ni+Mo 1600 9/08
Semi-Austenitic Stainless Steels Fe–15Cr–7Ni 1700 3/08
Martensitic Stainless Steels
Precipitation-Strengthened Fe–Cr–Ni 1810 3/08
Heat Treatable Fe–Cr 1820 6/08
Austenitic Steels
300-Series Stainless Alloys
Type 304 & 304L Fe–19Cr–10Ni 2101 5/05
Type 316 & 316L Fe–18Cr–12Ni+Mo 2103 3/05
Type 321 & 347 Fe–18Cr–10Ni + Ti/Nb 2104 12/08
Nitrogen-Strengthened Stainless Alloys
22-13-5 Fe–22Cr–13Ni–5Mn–2.5Mo+N 2201 1/05
21-6-9 Fe–21Cr–6Ni–9Mn+N 2202 5/05
Precipitation-Strengthened Stainless Alloys
A-286 Fe–25Ni–15Cr+Ti+Mo 2301 5/05
Specialty Alloys
Fe-Ni-Co Sealing Alloys Fe–28Ni–20Co 2401 10/05
Aluminum Alloys
Non-Heat Treatable Alloys
Pure Aluminum Al 3101 4/07
Heat Treatable Alloys
2XXX-series alloys Al-Cu 3210 5/09
6XXX-series alloys Al-Mg-Si 3220
7XXX-series alloys Al-Zn-Mg-Cu 3230 5/09
Copper Alloys
Pure Copper Cu 4001 5/06
Polymers 8100 5/08
With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Volume 1 of Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of materials in energy technologies is an invaluable reference tool for engineers, designers, materials scientists, and solid mechanicians working with safety-critical components fabricated from high performance materials required to operate in severe environments based on hydrogen. Impacted technologies include aerospace, petrochemical refining, gas transmission, power generation and transportation.

Visit the book’s website for more information.

The Technical Database for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials is intended to be a complement to the Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials. Although still in the development stage, the Technical Database will provide a repository of technical data measured in hydrogen and is meant to be an engineering tool to aid the selection of materials for use in hydrogen.

The structure of the Technical Database will mirror the Technical Reference, using the same designations and classifications of materials. Below is a list of the database information compiled in the form of spreadsheets. The content is being updated continuously to eventually contain the data represented in the Technical Reference. A single material from a single study is represented in each spreadsheet: the material is indicated by the first four digits; the author and year of the primary source are represented by the following characters; and the type of data follows (i.e. tensile, fracture and/or fatigue).

Plain Carbon Ferritic Steels

Low-Alloy Ferritic Steels

Aluminum Alloys

On April 9th and 10th, 2013, the Hydrogen Effects on Materials Laboratory team at Sandia National Laboratories/California, invited representatives from 10 institutes in 7 different countries to participate in a meeting to identify gaps in capabilities (equipment, procedures, safety) for testing materials in hydrogen gas, particularly at high pressures (up to 100 MPa) with demanding duty cycles and long test durations. The purpose of these specialized testing systems is for applying monotonic and cyclic loading to material specimens (metals and non-metals) in hydrogen gas to measure deformation and fracture properties. The meeting provided a forum for interactive exchange of information and ideas on the participants’ facility designs and operations.

The following are the presentations from each of the 10 institutes.

Sandia National Laboratories, USA
Ken Lee
Powertech Labs, Inc., Canada
Darren Bromley
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan
Takashi Iijima
Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Japan
Hideki Fujii
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), S. Korea
Seung Hoon Nahm
Pprime Institute, France
Gilbert Henaff
The Welding Institute (TWI), UK Richard Pargeter
French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), France Laurent Briottet
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA Andrew Slifka
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Finland Pekka Moilanen

Financial support for the Advancing Materials Testing in Hydrogen Gas Meeting was provided by the Safety, Codes and Standards program of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, United States Department of Energy.