Smart grid definition graphicThe smart-grid definition implies the need for ubiquitous communications and extensive controls to increase reliability, efficiency, flexibility, and cost effectiveness. Smart-grid features include demand-response capabilities, advanced controls, DER integration, increased situational awareness, smart metering, advancement of ancillary services, time-of-use pricing, and peak curtailment, to name a few. The communication technologies at the smart grid’s heart provide the backbone for these features, which risks being exploited by adversaries. Furthermore, adding numerous automated services and devices to support smart-grid objectives risk compromise. In essence, the attack surface of the utility control systems is significantly larger. For example, smart meter and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems, when implemented incorrectly, could provide injection points to the utility and meters equipped with demand response capabilities introduce the possibility of direct customer power disconnect.