Recent Publications, Listed by Date.

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R. Hill, G.T. Klise, and John R. Balfour [High Performance PV], Precursor Report of Data Needs and Recommended Practices for PV Plant Availability, Operations and Maintenance Reporting, Albuquerque, NM. SAND2015-0587.

D.M. Riley, C.W. Hansen, M. Farr, A Performance Model for Photovoltaic Modules with Integrated Microinverters, Albuquerque, NM, 2015. SAND2015-0179.

Santiago S. Sena, Jimmy E. Quiroz, Robert J. Broderick, Analysis of 100 SGIP Interconnection Studies, Albuquerque, NM. SAND2014-4753.

S.F. Dwyer, B. Dwyer, A. Sanchez, Structural Code Considerations of Solar Rooftop Installations, Albuquerque, NM. SAND 2014-20601.

S.F. Dwyer, A. Sanchez, I. Campos, W. Gerstle, Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations, Albuquerque, NM. SAND2014-20600.

J.E. Quiroz, S. Gonzalez, B. King, D. Riley, J. Johnson, J. Stein, Photovoltaic Microinverter Testbed for Multiple Device Interoperability, Albuquerque, NM, 2014. SAND2014-207844.

G.T. Klise, R.R. Hill, C.J. Hamman, P.H. Kobos, V. Gupta, B.B. Yang, PV Reliability Operations and Maintenance (PVROM) Database Initiative: 2014 Progress Report, Albuquerque, NM, 2014. SAND2014-20612.

G.T. Klise, J.R. Balfour (High Performance PV), and T.J. Keating (SunSpec Alliance), Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts, Albuquerque, NM, 2014. SAND2014-19432.

A. Driesse, J. S. Stein, D. Riley, and C. Carmignani, Sampling and Filtering in Photovoltaic System Performance Monitoring, Sandia Report, Albuquerque, NM, 2014. SAND2014-19137

M. J. Reno, K. Coogan, S. Grijalva, R. J. Broderick, and J. E. Quiroz, PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones, IEEE PES General Meeting, National Harbor, MD, 2014. SAND2014-10359C

M. J. Seuss, M. J. Reno, R. J. Broderick, and R. G. Harley, Evaluation of Reactive Power Control Capabilities of Residential PV in an Unbalanced Distribution Feeder, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-4865C

J. Flicker, K.M. Armijo, J. Johnson, Recommendations for RCD Ground Fault Detector Trip Thresholds, EU PVSEC, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2014. SAND2014-17754C

J. Johnson, R. Bründlinger, C. Urrego, R. Alonso, Collaborative Development Of Automated Advanced Interoperability Certification Test Protocols For PV Smart Grid Integration, EU PVSEC, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2014. SAND2014-17889C

S. McConnell, Z. Wang, R.S. Balog, J. Johnson, Evaluation Method for Arc Fault Detection Algorithms, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-18452C

Z. Wang, S. McConnell, R.S. Balog, J. Johnson, Arc Fault Signal Detection – Fourier Transformation vs. Wavelet Decomposition Techniques using Synthesized Data, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-18449C

J. Johnson, K.M. Armijo, Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-4866C

K.M. Armijo, J. Johnson, M. Hibbs, A. Fresquez, Characterizing Fire Danger from Low Power PV Arc-Faults, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-4593C

J. Flicker, J. Johnson, M. Albers, and G. Ball, Recommendations for CSM and Riso Ground Fault Detector Trip Thresholds, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-18509C

B.B. Yang, K.M. Armijo, R.K. Harrison, K.E. Thomas, J. Johnson, J.M. Taylor, N.R. Sorensen, Arc Fault Risk Assessment and Degradation Model Development for Photovoltaic Connectors, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-1403C

J. Johnson, B. Fox, Automating the Sandia Advanced Interoperability Test Protocols, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-4863C

A. Pohl, J. Johnson, S. Sena, R. Broderick, J. Quiroz, High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling, 40th IEEE PVSC, Denver, CO, June 2014. SAND2014-4614C

K.M. Armijo, J. Johnson, R.K. Harrison, K. E. Thomas, M. Hibbs, A. Fresquez, Quantifying Photovoltaic Fire Danger Reduction with Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters, Progress in Photovoltaics, 2014. SAND2014-17782J

Introduction to the Open Source PV LIB for Python Photovoltaic System Modelling Package: Robert W. Andrews, Joshua S. Stein, Clifford Hansen, and Daniel Riley (SAND 2014-18444C, PDF 0.45MB)

Sandia Inverter Performance Test Protocol Efficiency Weighting Alternatives: Jeff Newmiller, William Erdman, Joshua S. Stein, and Sigifredo Gonzalez (SAND 2014-18446C, PDF 0.24MB)

Calibration of Photovoltaic Module Performance Models Using Monitored System Data: Katherine Klise, Clifford Hansen, Joshua S. Stein, Yuzuru Ueda, and Keiichiro Hakuta (SAND 2014-17798C, PDF 0.4MB)

Using XFRACAS as a PVROM Database Tool Author: Colin J. Hamman (SAND 2014-2914, PDF 1.2MB)

Market Valuation Perspectives for Photovoltaic Systems (780 downloads ) , Authors: Geoffrey T. Klise, (PDF 2.2MB)

Measuring PV System Series Resistance Without IV Curves, Authors: Joshua S. Stein, Shawn McCaslin, Clifford W. Hansen, William E. Boyson, and Charles D. Robinson (PVSC paper, 511KB)

Spatial Variations in Temperature across a Photovoltaic Array, Authors: Michaela G. Farr and Joshua S. Stein (PVSC paper, 1.1 MB)

HCPV Characterization: Analysis of Fielded System Data, Authors: Bruce King, Dan Riley, Clifford Hansen, Matt Erdman, John Gabriel and Kanchan Ghosal (CPV-10 paper, 1.45 MB)

Evaluation Method for Arc Fault Detection Algorithms, Authors: Stephen McConnell, Zhan Wang, Robert S. Balog, Jay Johnson (poster, 669 KB)

Impact of PV Variability and Ramping Events on Distribution Voltage Regulation Equipment, Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Kyle Coogan, Robert J. Broderick, John Seuss, Santiago Grijalva (presentation, 1 MB)

Analysis of 100 Utility SGIP PV Interconnection Studies (227 downloads ) , Authors: Santiago S. Sena, Jimmy E. Quiroz, and Robert J. Broderick

Determining the Effect of Temperature on Microinverter Inversion Efficiency, Authors: Daniel Riley and Armando Fresquez (SAND2014-4411C, 921 KB)

Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations, Authors: Daniel M. Riley, Clifford W. Hansen (SAND2014-3242, 641 KB)

Implementation of Voltage and Frequency Ride-Through Requirements in Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Standards, Authors: Reigh Walling, Abraham Ellis, Sigifredo Gonzales (SAND2014-3122, 683 KB)

Clustering Method and Representative Feeder Selection for the California Solar Initiative, Authors: Robert J. Broderick, Joseph R. Williams, Karina Munoz-Ramos (SAND2014-1443, 1.41MB)

Experimental Comparison of PV-Smoothing Controllers using Distributed Generators (36 downloads ) , Authors: Jay Johnson, Abraham Ellis, Atsushi Denda, Kimio Morino, John Hawkins, Brian Arellano, Takao Shinji, Takao Ogata, and Masayuki Tadokoro (SAND2014-1546, 3430KB)

How PV System Ownership Can Impact the Market Value of Residential Homes , Authors: Geoffrey T. Klise and Jamie L. Johnson (SAND2014-0239, 700KB)

Application and Characterization of an Artificial Grime for Photovoltaic Soiling Studies, Authors: Patrick D. Burton and Bruce H. King (IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Jan 2014)

Locational Dependence of PV Hosting Capacity Correlated with Feeder Load (343 downloads ) , Authors: Kyle Coogan, Matthew J. Reno, Santiago Grijalva, Robert J. Broderick

Accelerating Development of Advanced Inverters: Evaluation of Anti-Islanding Schemes with Grid Support Functions and Preliminary Laboratory Demonstration, Authors: Jason C. Neely, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Michael Ropp, Dustin Schutz (SAND Report 2013-10231, 4.9MB)

High Penetration PV Interconnection Modeling and Reduction of Distribution Feeders (215 downloads ) , Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Robert J. Broderick, Kyle Coogan, Jimmy Quiroz, and Santiago Grijalva (SAND Report 2013-7514P, 684KB)

Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) (317 downloads ) , Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Kyle Coogan (SAND Report 2013-6733, 3.2MB)

Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for Photovoltaic System Modeling, Authors: Clifford Hansen, Andrew Pohl, and Dirk Jordan (SAND Report 2013-10358, 6.7MB)

Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions – Main Document, Authors: Jay Johnson, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Mark E. Ralph, Abraham Ellis, and Robert Broderick (SAND Report 2013-9880, 736KB)

Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions – Appendices, Authors: Jay Johnson, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Mark E. Ralph, Abraham Ellis, and Robert Broderick (SAND Report 2013-9875, 3.6MB)

Outdoor PV Performance Evaluation of Three Different Models: Single-Diode, SAPM and Loss Factors Model, Authors: Joshua S. Stein, Juergen Sutterlueti, Steve Ransome, Clifford W. Hansen, Bruce H. King (SAND Report 2013-7913C, 583KB)

Sensitivity of Single-Diode Models for Photovoltaic Modules to Method Used for Parameter Estimation, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Amanda Luketa-Hanlin, and Joshua S. Stein (SAND Report 2013-9071C, 389KB)

Technical Memo: Performance Model for Semprius Module, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen and Daniel Riley (SAND Report 2013-9078P, 395KB)

Time Series Simulation of Voltage Regulation Device Control Modes (348 downloads ) , Authors: Jimmy E. Quiroz, Matthew J. Reno, and Robert J. Broderick (SAND Report 2013-4895C, 504KB)

Water Use and Supply Concerns for Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States, Authors: Geoffrey T. Klise, Vincent C. Tidwell, Marissa D. Reno, Barbara D. Moreland, Katie M. Zemlick, Jordan Macknick (SAND Report 2013-5238, 3.25 MB)

Reduction of Distribution Feeders for Simplified PV Impact Studies (355 downloads ) , Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Kyle Coogan, Robert Broderick, Santiago Grijalva (811 KB)

Smart Inverter Capabilities for Mitigating Over-Voltage on Distribution Systems with High Penetrations of PV (332 downloads ) , Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Kyle Coogan, Robert Broderick, Santiago Grijalva (598 KB)

Simulating Solar Power Plant Variability: A Review of Current Methods (708 downloads ) , Authors: Matthew Lave, Abraham Ellis, Joshua S. Stein (SAND Report 2013-4757, 963 KB)

Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper (538 downloads ) , Authors: Abraham Ellis, Robert Broderick Sandia National Laboratories; Tim Lindl, Kevin Fox Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. (1.75 MB)

Photovoltaic Ground Fault and Blind Spot Electrical Simulations, Authors: Jack D. Flicker, Jay Johnson (SAND Report 2013-3459, 17 MB)

Formulating a Simplified Equivalent Representation of Distribution Circuits for PV Impact Studies, Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Robert J. Broderick, Santiago Grijalva (SAND Report 2013-2831, 0.9 MB)

Using Cloud Classification to Model Solar Variability, Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Joshua S. Stein (SAND Report 2013-1692C, 1.2 MB)

Literature Review: Reducing Soft Costs of Rooftop Solar Installations Attributed to Structural Considerations (501 downloads ) , Author: Stephen F. Dwyer, PhD, PE (SAND Report 2013-2090, 1 MB)

Preliminary Photovoltaic Arc-Fault Prognostic Tests using Sacrificial Fiber Optic Cabling, Authors: Jay Johnson, Kenneth D. Blemel, Francis Peter (SAND Report 2013-1185, 2.6 MB)

PV Output Smoothing using a Battery and Natural Gas Engine-Generator (1056 downloads ) , Authors: Jay Johnson, Abraham Ellis, Atsushi Denda, Kimio Morino, Takao Shinji, Takao Ogata, Masayuki Tadokoro (SAND Report 2013-1603, 4.4 MB)

PV Distribution Interconnection Study Analysis (566 downloads ) , Authors: Robert J Broderick, Jimmy E. Quiroz, Matthew J. Reno, Santiago Grijalva (SAND Report 5318243, 0.7 MB)

Time Series Power Flow Analysis for Distribution Connected PV Generation, Authors: Robert J Broderick, Jimmy E. Quiroz, Matthew J. Reno, Abraham Ellis, Jeff Smith, Roger Dugan (SAND Report 2013-0537, 2.5 MB)

Simulated PV Power Plant Variability: Impact of Utility-imposed Ramp Limitations in Puerto Rico, Authors: Matthew Lave, Jan Kleissl, Abraham Ellis, Felipe Mejia (SAND Report 2013-4926C, 575 KB)

Performance of Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters Operating Beyond Typical Modes of Operation, Authors: Sigifredo Gonzalez, Joshua Stein, Armando Fresquez, Michael Ropp, Dustin Schutz (SAND Report 2013-4829C, 393 KB)

Failure Analysis and Reliability Model Development for Microsystems-Enabled Photovoltaics, Authors: Benjamin B. Yang, Jose L. Cruz-Campa, Gaddi S. Haase, Edward I. Cole Jr., Paiboon Tangyunyong, Paul J. Resnick, Alice C. Kilgo, Murat Okandan, Gregory N. Nielson (SAND Report 2013-4706C, 971 KB)

Reliability Model Development for Photovoltaic Connector Lifetime Prediction Capabilities, Authors: Benjamin B. Yang, N. Robert Sorensen, Patrick D. Burton, Jason M. Taylor, Alice C. Kilgo, David G. Robinson, Jennifer E. Granata (SAND Report 2013-4705C, 1.63 MB)

Testing and Characterization of PV Modules with Integrated Microinverters, Authors: Daniel Riley, Joshua Stein, Jay Kratochvil (SAND Report 2013-4882C, 839 KB)

PV Microinverter Testbed for Interoperability, Authors: Jimmy E. Quiroz, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Joshua S. Stein (SAND Report 2013-4897C, 701 KB)

Systems Long Term Exposure Program: Analysis of the First Year of Data, Authors: B. H. King, J. E. Granata, A. J. Luketa-Hanlin (SAND Report 2013-5122C, 803 KB)

Accelerated Life Testing of PV Arc-Fault Detectors, Authors: Jay Johnson, Michael Neilsen, Paul Vianco, N. Rob Sorensen, Michael Montoya, Armando Fresquez (SAND 2013-4831C, 2.18 MB)

Estimation of Parameters for Single Diode Models Using Measured IV Curves, Author: Clifford W. Hansen (SAND 2013-4759C, 459 KB)

Electrical Simulations of Series and Parallel PV Arc-Faults, Authors: Jack Flicker, Jay Johnson (SAND 2013-4979C, 2.69 MB)

Lifetime Testing of Metallized Thin Film Capacitors for Inverter Applications, Authors: Jack Flicker, Robert Kaplar, Matthew Marinella, Jennifer Granata (SAND 2013-0748C, 688 KB)

Artificial Soiling of Photovoltaic Module Surfaces using Traceable Soil Components, Authors: Patrick D. Burton, Bruce H. King (SAND 2013-4760C, 17.4 MB)

Clustering Methodology for Classifying Distribution Feeders, Authors: Robert J. Broderick, Joseph R. Williams (SAND 2013-4775C, 469 KB)

Performance Impact of Solar Gain on Photovoltaic Inverters and Utility-Scale Energy Generation Systems, Author: Kenneth M. Armijo (SAND 2013-4859C, 788 KB)

Standardizing Appraisals for PV Installations, Authors: Geoffrey T. Klise, Jamie L. Johnson, Sandra K. Adomatis (SAND Report 2013-5239C, 465 KB)

Sun City Progress Report: Policy Effects on Photovoltaic Adoption for City Planning (260 downloads ) , Authors: Daniel L. Villa, Marissa D. Reno-Trujillo, Howard D. Passall (SAND Report 2012-8755, 1.08 MB)

The Comparison of Three Photovoltaic System Designs Using the Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model (PV-RPM), Authors: Steven P. Miller, Jennifer E. Granata, Joshua S Stein (SAND Report 2012-10342, 3 MB)

Simulation of Photovoltaic Power Output for the Salt River Project Integration Study, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Amanda Luketa-Hanlin, Aidan P. Tuohy, Kristen M. Nicole (SAND Report 2012-9920, 5 MB)

Detailed Grid Integration Analysis of Distributed PV (629 downloads ) , Authors: Jimmy Quiroz, Matthew Reno (SAND Report 2012-4533, 5 MB)

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Princeton Power Systems Development of the 100kW Demand Response Inverter (2058 downloads ) , Authors: Ward Bower, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abbas Akhil, Lisa Sena-Henderson, Carolyn David, Mark Holveck, Darren Hammell, Paul Heavener (SAND Report 2012-1248, 5.7 MB)

Development of Economically Viable, Highly Integrated, Highly Modular SEGIS Architecture (1430 downloads ) , Authors: Ward Bower, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abbas Akhil, Scott Kuszmaul, Lisa Sena-Henderson, Carolyn David, Hussam Alatrash, Ruba Amarin, Evlyn Mark, Mohammad Kuran, Khalid Rustom, Rick Stuby, Ghaith Haddad, Ronald Hamaoui, Johan Enslin (SAND Report 2012-2215P, 10.1 MB)

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team (9284 downloads ) , Authors: Ward Bower, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abbas Akhil, Scott Kuszmaul, Lisa Sena-Henderson, Carolyn David, Robert Reedy, Kristopher Davis, David Click, Houtan Moaveni, Leo Casey, Mark Prestero, Jim Perkinson, Stanley Katz, Michael Ropp, Alan Schaffer (SAND Report 2012-1395, 4.9 MB)

Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS Developments (1532 downloads ) , Authors: Ward Bower, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abbas Akhil, Scott Kuszmaul, Lisa Sena-Henderson, Carolyn David, Michael A. Mills-Price, Mesa P. Scharf (SAND Report 2012-2217, 2 MB)

Review of Existing Reactive Power Requirements for Variable Generation (1290 downloads ) , Authors: A. Ellis, R. Nelson, E. Von Engeln, R. Walling, J. MacDowell, L. Casey, E. Seymour, W. Peter, C. Barker, B. Kirby, J. R. Williams (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, 0.3 MB)

Reactive Power Performance Requirements for Wind and Solar Plants, Authors: A. Ellis, R. Nelson, E. Von Engeln, R. Walling, J. MacDowell, L. Casey, Member, E. Seymour, W. Peter, C. Barker, B. Kirby, J. R. Williams (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, 0.3 MB)

Reactive Power Interconnection Requirements for PV and Wind Plants Recommendations to NERC (3349 downloads ) , Authors: Abraham Ellis, Robert Nelson, Edi Von Engeln, Reigh Walling, Jason McDowell, Leo Casey, Eric Seymour, William Peter, Chris Barker, Brendan Kirby (SAND Report 2012-1098, 0.4 MB)

Harmonized procedures for longterm energy yield measurements and performance evaluation of PV modules in outdoor conditions (361 downloads ) , Authors: Vincent Helmbrecht, Diana Craciun, Abraham Ellis, Jennifer Granata, Stathis Tselepis, Anastasios Kyritsis, Nikos Hatziargyriou (PVI Paper, 0.9 MB)

Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Procedures and Interconnection Requirements (2483 downloads ) , Authors: Abraham Ellis, Benjamin Karlson, Joseph Williams (SAND Report 2012-2090, 1.3 MB)

Technical Analysis of Prospective Photovoltaic Systems in Utah (411 downloads ) , Authors: Jimmy E. Quiroz, Christopher P. Cameron (SAND Report 2012-1366, 2.57 MB)

Suggested Guidelines for Assessment of DG Unintentional Islanding Risk (474 downloads ) , Authors: M. Ropp and Abraham Ellis (SAND Report 2012-1365, 531 KB)

Validation of Simulated Irradiance and Power for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, Phase II, Author: Clifford W. Hansen (SAND Report 2012-8417, 1.45 MB)

PV Output Variability Modeling Using Satellite Imagery and Neural Networks, Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Joshua S. Stein (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, 0.7 MB)

Analyzing and Simulating the Reduction in PV Powerplant Variability Due to Geographic Smoothing in Ota City, Japan and Alamosa, CO, Authors: Matthew Lave, Joshua S. Stein, Abraham Ellis (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, 0.7 MB)

Calibration of the Sandia Array Performance Model Using Indoor Measurements, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Daniel M. Riley, Manuel Jaramillo (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-7149C, 0.5 MB)

Photovoltaic Prognostics and Heath Management using Learning Algorithms, Authors: Daniel Riley, Jay Johnson (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-7148C, 0.7 MB)

Differentiating series and parallel photovoltaic arc-faults, Authors: J. Johnson, M. Montoya, S. McCalmont, G. Katzir, F. Fuks, J. Earle, A. Fresquez, S. Gonzalez, J. Granata (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-4511C, 1.3 MB)

Crosstalk nuisance trip testing of photovoltaic DC arc-fault detectors, Authors: J. Johnson, C. Oberhauser, M. Montoya, A. Fresquez, S. Gonzalez, A. Patel (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, 1.2 MB)

The Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Collaborative (PVPMC), Author: Joshua S. Stein (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-4441C, 0.5 MB)

Improvement and Validation of a Transient Model To Predict Photovoltaic Module Temperature, Authors: Amanda Luketa-Hanlin, Joshua S. Stein (WREF Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-4307C, 0.5 MB)

Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes, Authors: J. Johnson, W. Bower, M.A. Quintana (WREF Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-2024C1, 0.9 MB)

Modeling Distribution System Impacts of Solar Variability and Interconnection Location, Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Abraham Ellis, Jimmy Quiroz, Santiago Grijalva (WREF Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-2390C, 0.8 MB)

Effect of Time Averaging on Estimation of Photovoltaic System Performance, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein (WREF Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-2388C, 0.1 MB)

The Variability Index: A New and Novel Metric for Quantifying Irradiance and PV Output Variability, Authors: Joshua S. Stein, Clifford W. Hansen, Matthew J. Reno (WREF Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-2088C1, 0.6 MB)

How Predictable is DNI? (800 downloads ) , Authors: Tobias Gerstmaier, Michael Bührer, Michael Röttger, Andreas Gombert [Soitec Solar GmbH], Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein (CPV-8 Conference Paper, SAND Report 2012-3465C, 0.1 MB)

Global Horizontal Irradiance Clear Sky Models: Implementation and Analysis, Authors: Matthew J. Reno, Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein (SAND Report 2012-2389, 1 MB)

Sandia’s Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model, Authors: Jennifer Granata, Steven Miller, Joshua Stein (PV Rollout Conference Paper, SAND Report 2011-9293C, 0.4 MB)

Effect of Time Scale on Analysis of PV System Performance, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein, Daniel Riley (SAND Report 2012-1099, 0.43 MB)

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration, Authors: Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill, Michael Coddington [NREL], Barry Mather [NREL], Benjamin Kroposki [NREL], Kevin Lynn [DOE], Alvin Razon [DOE], Tom Key [Electric Power Research Institute], Kristen Nicole [Electric Power Research Institute], Jeff Smith [Electric Power Research Institute] (Technical Report, NREL/TP-5500-54063, 1.2 MB)

SEGIS and the SMART GRID (1011 downloads ) , Authors: Ward Bower, Chris Cameron, Sig Gonzalez, Abbas Akhil, Scott Kuszmaul, Lisa Sena-Henderson, Carolyn King David (SEGIS Seminar Presentation, SAND Report 2012-2218P, 2.9 MB)

Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV Integration Study, Authors: Tom Mousseau and Abraham Ellis (SAND Report 2011-75411, 2.3 MB)

Multi-PV Inverter Utility Interconnection Evaluations, Authors: Sigifredo Gonzalez, Michael Ropp, Armando Fresquez, Michael Montoya, Nelson Opell (SAND Report, 1.06 MB)

Initial Operating Experience of the 1.2-MW La Ola Photovoltaic System, Authors: Jay Johnson, Benjamin Schenkman, Abraham Ellis, Jimmy Quiroz, Carl Lenox (SAND Report 2011-8848, 3.4 MB)

Ota City: Characterizing Output Variability from 553 Homes with Residential PV Systems on a Distribution Feeder, Authors: Matthew Lave, Joshua S. Stein, Abraham Ellis, Clifford W. Hansen, Eichi Nakashima, Yusuke Miyamoto (SAND Report 2011-90111, 1.6 MB)

Simulation of One-Minute Power Output from Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Generation Systems, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein, Abraham Ellis (SAND Report 2011-5529, 566 KB)

Photovoltaic DC arc fault detector testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Author: J. Johnson, B. Pahl, C.J. Luebke, T. Pier, T. Miller, J. Strauch, S. Kuszmaul, W. Bower (IEEE PVSC Conference Paper, SAND Report 2011-4234C1, 0.7 MB)

Creating Dynamic Equivalent PV Circuit Models with Impedance Spectroscopy for Arc Fault Modeling, Authors: Jay Johnson, David Schoenwald, Scott Kuszmaul, Jason Strauch, Ward Bower (Technical Paper, 314 KB)

PV Inverter Performance and Reliability: What is the Role of the IGBT?, Authors: Robert Kaplar, Reinhard Brock, Sandeepan DasGupta, Matthew Marinella, Andrew Starbuck, Armando Fresquez, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Jennifer Granata, Michael Quintana, Mark Smith, Stanley Atcitty (Technical Paper, 321 KB)

Ultrathin Flexible Crystalline Silicon: Microsystem Enabled Photovoltaics, Authors: Jose L. Cruz-Campa, Gregory N. Nielson, Paul J. Resnick, Carlos A. Sanchez, Peggy J. Clews, Murat Okandan, Vipin Gupta (Technical Paper, 408 KB)

PV System Modeling for Grid Planning Studies, Authors: A. Ellis, M. Behnke [BEW Engineering], C. Barker [SunPower Corporation] (Technical Paper, 374 KB)

Multi-PV Inverter Utility Interconnection Evaluations, Authors: Sigifredo Gonzalez, Michael Ropp [Northern Plains Power Technologies], Armando Fresquez, Michael Montoya, Nelson Opell (Technical Paper, 1 MB)

Photovoltaic DC Arc Fault Detector Testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Authors: Jay Johnson, Birger Pahl [Eaton Corporation], Charles Luebke [Eaton Corporation], Tom Pier [Eaton Corporation], Theodore Miller [Eaton Corporation], Jason Strauch, Scott Kuszmaul, Ward Bower (Technical Paper, 714 KB)

Transmission and Distribution Deferment using PV and Energy Storage, Authors: Mark Ralph, Abraham Elllis, Dan Borneo, Garth Corey, Sara Baldwin [Utah Clean Energy] (Technical Paper, 3 MB)

Successful Transfer of Sandia National Laboratories’ Outdoor Test Technology to TUV Rheinland Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory, Authors: Jennifer E. Granata, William E. Boyson, Jay A. Kratochvil, Bo Li [TUV Rheinland PTL], Venkata Abbaraju [TUV Rheinland PTL], GovindaSamy TamizhMani [TUV Rheinland PTL], Lawrence Pratt [CFV SolarTest Laboratory] (Technical Paper, 1 MB)

Performance Assessment Without Pyranometers: Predicting Energy Output Based on Historical Correlation, Authors: Anastasios Golnas, Joseph Bryan [SunEdison]; Robert Wimbrow [San Clemente, CA]; Clifford Hansen [Sandia National Laboratories]; Steve Voss [SunEdison] (Technical Paper, 211 KB)

Parameter Uncertainty in the Sandia Array Performance Model for Flat-Plate Crystalline Silicon Modules, Authors: Clifford Hansen, Joshua Stein, Steven Miller, William Boyson, Jay Kratochvil, David L. King (Technical Paper, 740 KB)

Assessment of a New Simulation Approach for Estimating PV Output Variability from Satellite Imagery, Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein, Abraham Ellis, Carl Lenox [SunPower Corporation] (Technical Paper, 279 KB)

Improved Accuracy for Low-Cost Solar Irradiance Sensors, Authors: D. L. King, W.E. Boyson, B.R. Hansen, W.I. Bower (Technical Paper, 544 KB)

Evaluation of Photovoltaic System Power Rating Methods for a Cadmium Telluride Array, Authors: L. Nelson [First Solar], C. Hansen [Sandia National Laboratories] (Technical Paper, 514 KB)

Comparison of a Recurrent Neural Network PV System Model with a Traditional Component-Based PV System Model, Authors: Daniel Riley, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy [Missouri University of Science and Technology] (Technical Paper, 269 KB)

Estimating Annual Synchronized 1-Min Power Output Profiles from Utility-Scale PV Plants at 10 Locations in Nevada for a Solar Grid Integration Study, Authors: Joshua S. Stein, Clifford W. Hansen, Abraham Ellis, V. Chadliev [NV Energy] (Technical Paper, 554 KB)

Simulation of 1-Minute Power Output from Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Generation Systems, Authors: Joshua S. Stein, Clifford W. Hansen, Abraham Ellis, Vladimir Chadliev [NV Energy] (Technical Paper, 339 KB)

Utility-Scale Grid-Tied PV Inverter Reliability Workshop Summary Report, Authors: Stanley Atcitty, Jennifer E. Granata, Michael A. Quintana, Coryne A. Tasca [SRA International] (Technical Paper, 588 KB)

PV Performance Modeling Workshop Summary Report (810 downloads ) , Authors: Christopher P. Cameron, Joshua S. Stein, Coryne A. Tasca [SRA International] (Technical Paper, 3.75 MB)

Evaluation of PV Performance Models and Their Impact on Project Risk (531 downloads ) , Authors: Christopher P. Cameron, Joshua S. Stein, Clifford W. Hansen (Technical Paper, 203 KB)

A Performance and Economic Analysis of Distributed Power Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems (243 downloads ) , Authors: Jennifer Granata, Sigifredo Gonzalez (Sandia National Laboratories); Chris Deline, Bill Marion (NREL), (Technical Paper, 694 KB)

Microfabrication of microsystem-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells (399 downloads ) , Authors: Gregory N. Nielson, Murat Okandan, Jose L. Cruz-Campa, Paul J. Resnick, Peggy J. Clews, Tammy C. Pluym, Carlos A. Sanchez, Vipin P. Gupta, Mark W. Wanlass [NREL] (Technical Paper, 4 MB)

The Levelized Cost of Energy for Distributed PV: A Parametric Study, Authors: Christopher P. Cameron, Alan C. Goodrich [National Renewable Energy Laboratory] (Technical Paper, 159 KB)

Field Data Collection for Quantification of Reliability and Availability for Photovoltaic Systems, Authors: Elmer Collins, Jeff Mahn, Michael Mundt, Jennifer Granata, Michael Quintana (Technical Paper, 350 KB)

Back-Contacted and Small Form Factor GaAS Solar Cell, Authors: Cruz-Campa, J. L.; Nielson, G. N.; Okandan, M.; Wanlass, M. W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory]; Sanchez, C. A.; Resnick. P. J.; Clews, P. J.; Pluym, T.; Gupta, V. P. ( Technical Paper, 1.7 MB)

Thin and Small Form Factor Cells: Simulated Behavior, Authors: Cruz-Campa, J. L.; Zubia, D. [University of Texas at El Paso]; Okandan, M.; Resnick. P. J.; Grubbs, R. K.; Clews, P.; Pluym, T.; Young, R.W.; Gupta, V. P.; Nielson, G. N. (Technical Paper, 551 KB)

PV Array Simulator Development and Validation, Authors: Sigifredo Gonzalez, Scott Kuszmaul, Don Deuel [Ametek Programmable Power], Roberto Lucca [Ametek Programmable Power] (Technical Paper, 170 KB)

Grid-Tied PV System Energy Smoothing, Authors: Thomas D. Hund, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Keith Barrett (Technical Paper, 331 KB)

Optimal Cell Connections for Improved Shading, Reliability, and Spectral Performance of Microsystem Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) Modules, Authors: Anthony L. Lentine, Gregory N. Nielson, Murat Okandan, William C. Sweatt, Jose L. Cruz-Campa, Vipin Gupta (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-3890A, 2 MB)

The Effect of Uncertainty in Modeling Coefficients Used to Predict Energy Production using the Sandia Array Performance Model, Authors: Larry Pratt, David L. King (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-4018A, 322 KB)

A Standardized Approach to PV System Performance Model Validation, Authors: Joshua S. Stein, Christopher P. Cameron, Ben Bourne [SunPower Corporation], Adrianne Kimber [First Solar], Jean Posbic [BP Solar], Terry Jester [Hudson Clean Energy Partners] (Technical Paper, 247 KB)

Impacts of Humidity and Temperature on the Performance of Transparent Conducting Zinc Oxide, Authors: Melissa A. Yaklin, Duane A. Schneider, Kirsten Norman, Jennifer E. Granata, Chad L. Staiger (Technical Paper, 121 KB)

Statistical Criteria for Characterizing Irradiance Time Series (407 downloads ) , Authors: Clifford W. Hansen, Joshua S. Stein, Abraham Ellis (SAND Report 2010-7314, 1.33MB)

Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Proactive Intelligent Advances for Photovoltaic Systems (5132 downloads ) , Authors: Ward Bower, Scott Kuszmaul, Sig Gonzalez, Abbas Akhil (SAND Report 2010-1395A, Technical Paper, 267KB)

Performance Model Assessment for Multi-Junction Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems, Authors: Christopher Cameron, Clark Crawford, James Foresi, David King, Robert McConnell, Dan Riley, Aaron Sahm, Joshua Stein (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-2005C, 144 KB)

A Reliability and Availability Sensitivity Study of a Large Photovoltaic System (1191 downloads ) , Authors: E. Collins, S. Miller, M. Mundt, J. Stein, R. Sorensen, J. Granata, M. Quintana (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-5782C, 538 KB)

Accelerated Testing of Metal Foil Tape Joints and their Effect on Photovoltaic Module Reliability (487 downloads ) , Authors: N. Robert Sorensen, Michael A. Quintana, Michael J. Mundt, Edward V. Thomas, Steven P. Miller, Samuel J. Lucero (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-5782C, 520 KB)

Validation of PV Performance Models Using Satellite-Based Measurements (553 downloads ) , Authors: Joshua S. Stein , Richard Perez, Andrew Parkins (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-3048C, 557 KB)

Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network for Characterizing Solar Resource Variability of MW-Scale PV System (paper) (483 downloads ) , Authors: Scott Kuszmaul, Abraham Ellis, Joshua Stein, Lars Johnson (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2012-0073C 1.65 MB) )

Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network for Characterizing Solar Resource Variability of MW-Scale PV System (458 downloads ) , Authors: Scott Kuszmaul, Abraham Ellis, Joshua Stein, Lars Johnson (Presentation, SAND Report 2012-0073P, 0.98MB)

Microoptics for High Efficiency Optical Performance and Simplified Tracking for Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) (412 downloads ) , Authors: WC Sweatt, BH Jared, GN Nielson, M Okandan, A. Filatov, MB Sinclair, JL Cruz‐Campa, AL Lentine(Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-0876C, 5.55 MB)

Reliability and Availability Analysis of a Fielded Photovoltaic System (645 downloads ) , Authors: Elmer Collins, Michael Dvorack, Jeff Mahn, Michael Mundt, Michael Quintana (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-93004C, 122 KB)

Multiple Junction Cell Characterization Using the LBIC Method: Early Results, Issues, and Pathways to Improvement (867 downloads ) , Authors: Jason R. Finn, Barry R. Hansen, Jennifer E. Granata (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-1613C, 122 KB)

Exploring Diagnostic Capabilities for Application to New Photovoltaic Technologies (550 downloads ) , Authors: Enrico C. Quintana, Michael A. Quintana, Kevin D. Rolfe, Kyle R. Thompson, Peter Hacke (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3486C, 954 KB)

Exploring Diagnostic Capabilities for Application to New Photovoltaic Technologies (611 downloads ) , Authors: Enrico C. Quintana, Michael A. Quintana, Kevin D. Rolfe, Kyle R. Thompson, Peter Hacke (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3419C, 891 KB)

LONG-TERM INVERTER OPERATION DEMONSTRATION AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES (657 downloads ) , Authors: Sigifredo Gonzalez, Scott Kuszmaul, Abraham Ellis (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3488C, 215 KB)

Long-term Inverter Operation Demonstration at Sandia National Laboratories (presentation) (546 downloads ) , Authors: Sigifredo Gonzalez, Scott Kuszmaul, Abraham Ellis (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3488P, 406 KB)

Long-term performance and reliability assessment of 8 pv arrays At Sandia National Laboratories (presentation) (388 downloads ) , Authors: Jennifer Granata, William Boyson, Jay Kratochvil, Michael Quintana (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3485P, 333 KB)

Long-term performance and reliability assessment of 8 pv arrays At Sandia National Laboratories (paper) (854 downloads ) , Authors: Jennifer Granata, William Boyson, Jay Kratochvil, Michael Quintana (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3485C, 660 KB)

Technology Development Need for Integrated Grid-Connected PV Systems and Electric Energy Storage (paper) (1071 downloads ) , Authors: Charles Hanley, Georgianne Peek, John Boyes, Geoff Klise, Joshua Stein, Dan Ton, Tien Duong (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3669C, 517 KB)

Technology Development Need for Integrated Grid-Connected PV Systems and Electric Energy Storage (presentation) (429 downloads ) , Authors: Charles Hanley, Georgianne Peek, John Boyes, Geoff Klise, Joshua Stein, Dan Ton, Tien Duong (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3669P, 242 KB)

Improved Test Method to Verify the Power Rating of a Photovoltaic (PV) Project (5056 downloads ) , Authors: A. Kimber, T. Dierauf, L. Mitchell, C. Whitaker, T. Townsend, J. New Miller, D. King, J. Granata, K. Emery, C. Osterwald, D. Myers, B. Marion, A. Pligavko, A. Panchula, T. Levitsky, J. Forbess, F. Talmud (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2010-1609C, 319 KB)

Models Used to Assess the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems (523 downloads ) , Authors: Geoffrey T. Klise, Joshua S. Stein (SAND Report 2009-8258, 657 KB)

Commanding Inverters to Establish Coordinated μGrid Functionality at Sandia National Laboratories (493 downloads ) , Authors: Scott S. Kuszmaul, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abraham Ellis, Emanuel Serban (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3508C, 377 KB)

Commanding Inverters to Establish Coordinated μGrid Functionality at Sandia National Laboratories, Authors: Scott S. Kuszmaul, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abraham Ellis, Emanuel Serban (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3508P, 5.19 MB)

Dual Focus Cassegrainian Module Can Achieve >45% Efficiency (588 downloads ) , Authors: L. M. Fraas, J. E. Avery, J. E. Strauch, G. Girard (Technical Paper, 464 KB)

Quantifying the Effects of Averaging and Sampling Rates on PV System and Weather Data (paper) (642 downloads ) , Authors: Daniel M. Riley, Christopher P. Cameron, Joshua A. Jacob, Jennifer E. Granata, Gary M. Galbraith (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3487C, 365 KB)

Quantifying the Effects of Averaging and Sampling Rates on PV System and Weather Data (presentation) (407 downloads ) , Authors: Daniel M. Riley, Christopher P. Cameron, Joshua A. Jacob, Jennifer E. Granata, Gary M. Galbraith (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3494C 793KB)

The Effect of Metal Foil Tape Degradation on the Long-term Reliability of PV Modules (480 downloads ) , Authors: N. Robert Sorensen, Michael A. Quintana, Joseph D. Puskar, Samuel J. Lucero (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2009-3404C, 1.17 MB)

The Effect of Metal Foil Tape Degradation on the Long-term Reliability of PV Modules, Authors: N. Robert Sorensen, Michael A. Quintana, Joseph D. Puskar, Samuel J. Lucero (Presentation, SAND Report 2009-3415P, 1.32 MB)

Comparison of PV System Performance-Model Predictions with Measured PV System Performance (622 downloads ) , Authors: Christopher P. Cameron, William E. Boyson, Daniel M. Riley (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2008-3284C, 1 MB)
Performance Model for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters (458 downloads ) , Authors: David L. King, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Gary M. Galbraith, William E. Boyson (SAND Report 2007-5036, 1.26 MB)
Photovoltaic Array Performance Model (495 downloads ) , Authors: D.L. King, W. E. Boyson, J.A. Kratochvil (Technical Paper, SAND Report 2004-3535, 1.81 MB)
Arc-fault detector algorithm evaluation method utilizing prerecorded arcing signatures, Authors: J. Johnson and J. Kang (IEEE PVSC Conference Poster, SAND Report 2010-4485C1, 0.7 MB)

Comparison of a Recurrent Neural Network PV System Model with a Traditional Component-Based PV System Model (496 downloads ) , Authors: Daniel Riley, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy [Missouri University of Science and Technology] (Poster, 7.73 MB)

The Effect of Metal Foil Tape Degradation on the Long-term Reliability of PV Modules (416 downloads ) , Authors: N. Robert Sorensen, Michael A. Quintana, Joseph D. Puskar, Samuel J. Lucero (Poster, SAND Report 2009-3415P, 1.32 MB)

Scalable Micro-grid for a Safe, Secure, Efficient, and Cost-e”ective Electric Power Infrastructure (461 downloads ) , Authors: Anthony Lentine, Jeff Nelson, Scott Kuszmaul, Sig Gonzales, Steven Goldsmith, Dave Schoenwald , Shannon Spires, Steven Glover (Poster, SAND Report 2009-3773P, 780 KB)

Multiple Junction Cell Characterization Using the LBIC Method: Early Results, Issues, and Pathways to Improvement (553 downloads ) , Authors: Jason R. Finn, Barry R. Hansen, Jennifer E. Granata (Poster, SAND Report 2010-1613P, 6.11 MB)

Innovative Control of a Flexible Adaptive Energy Grid (478 downloads ) , Authors: David G. Wilson, Jason E. Stamp, Juan J. Torres, Ben Schenkman, Michael J. Baca, Jaldeep Ray (Poster, SAND Report 2009-5568P, 970 KB)

Commanding Inverters to Establish Coordinated μGrid Functionality at Sandia National Laboratories (381 downloads ) , Authors: Scott S. Kuszmaul, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Abraham Ellis (Poster, SAND Report 2009-3508P, 5.19MB)

Crosstalk Nuisance Trip Testing of Photovoltaic DC Arc-Fault Detectors, Authors: Jay Johnson, Chris Oberhauser, Michael Montoya, Armando Fresquez, Sigifredo Gonzalez, Ash Patel (IEEE PVSC Poster, SAND Report 2012-4503C1, 2.09 MB)

Water Pumping: The Solar Alternative (438 downloads ) (SAND87-0804) Soft cover, 56 pages. Provides an introduction to understanding the characteristics, including economics, of PV-powered water pumping systems. Although thousands of these systems exist worldwide, many potential users do not know how to decide whether or not PV pumping systems are an attractive option for them. This report provides current information on design options, feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can make an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with PV.

The Interconnection Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaic Systems (482 downloads ) (SAND87-3146) Soft cover, 40 pages. This report examines various aspects of and issues associated with the growing interest in interconnecting PV systems with utilities. Included are sections on barriers to widespread use, specific system design issues, utility-specific issues, and an overview of the design and installation process. It also presents a guide to applicable codes, standards, and related documents. Identifying and solving the potential problems associated with utility interconnection of dispersed power generation systems will assist in enabling the technology to develop and emerge into the marketplace.

The Interconnection of Photovoltaic Power Systems with the Utility Grid: An Overview for Utility Engineers (1639 downloads ) (SAND94-1057) Soft cover, 40 pages. This report examines various aspects of and issues associated with the growing interest in interconnecting PV systems with utilities. Included are sections on barriers to widespread use, specific system design issues, utility-specific issues, and an overview of the design and installation process. It also presents a guide to applicable codes, standards, and related documents. Identifying and solving the potential problems associated with utility interconnection of dispersed power generation systems will assist in enabling the technology to develop and emerge into the marketplace.

Solar Photovoltaics for Development Applications (1204 downloads ) (SAND93-1642) Soft cover, 48 pages. Introduces PV technology to those specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by PV systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether PV can assist in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major U.S. PV system suppliers.

Power Where You Need It: The Promise of Photovoltaics (1008 downloads ) (SAND2000-1124) Soft cover, 52 pages. Features 200 color photographs of photovoltaic installations throughout the United States, illustrating the diversity of PV. Minimal text highlights how PV can benefit individual homeowners, utilities, the military, and others. Designed to expand the possibilities for using PV as an enabling technology.

The Solar Way: Photovoltaics on Indian Lands (543 downloads ) (SAND2001-3863P) Soft cover, 60 pages. Features 150 color photographs of photovoltaic installations located on Indian lands throughout the United States, illustrating how PV meets the needs of Indian tribes as they seek to abide by the Seven Generations philosophy. Includes tribal and other contacts.